EBV is a herpesvirus that infects 50% of children before age 5. Over 90% of adults are seropositive for EBV. Its host is humans.
EBV infection is usually asymptomatic.
(See Overview of Herpesvirus Infections Overview of Herpesvirus Infections Eight types of herpesviruses infect humans (see Table: Herpesviruses That Infect Humans). After initial infection, all herpesviruses remain latent within specific host cells and may subsequently... read more .)
Pathophysiology of Infectious Mononucleosis
After exposure in the oral cavity, EBV infects B lymphocytes. Morphologically abnormal (atypical) lymphocytes develop, mainly from CD8+ T cells that respond to the infection.
After primary infection, EBV remains within the host, primarily in B lymphocytes, for life and undergoes intermittent asymptomatic shedding from the oropharynx. The virus is detectable in oropharyngeal secretions of 15 to 25% of healthy EBV-seropositive adults. Shedding increases in frequency and titer in immunocompromised patients (eg, organ allograft recipients, HIV-infected people).
EBV has not been recovered from environmental sources and is not very contagious.
Transmission may occur via transfusion of blood products but much more frequently occurs via kissing between an uninfected and an EBV-seropositive person who is shedding the virus asymptomatically. Only about 5% of patients acquire EBV from someone who has acute infection.
Early childhood transmission occurs more frequently among lower socioeconomic groups and in crowded conditions.
EBV is statistically associated with and likely has a causal role in
Certain B-cell tumors in immunocompromised patients
Certain forms of Hodgkin lymphoma
Certain gastric cancers
EBV does not cause chronic fatigue syndrome Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also called myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome [ME/CFS]) is a syndrome of life-altering fatigue lasting > 6 months that is unexplained and is accompanied... read more . However, it may occasionally cause a syndrome of fever, interstitial pneumonitis, pancytopenia, and uveitis (ie, chronic active EBV).
Symptoms and Signs of Infectious Mononucleosis
In most young children, primary EBV infection is asymptomatic. Symptoms of infectious mononucleosis develop most often in older children and adults.
The incubation period is about 30 to 50 days. Fatigue can last for months but is usually maximal during the first 2 to 3 weeks.
Most patients have the triad of
Fever usually peaks in the afternoon or early evening, with a temperature around 39.5° C, although it may reach 40.5° C.
Pharyngitis may be severe, painful, and exudative and may resemble streptococcal pharyngitis.
Adenopathy is usually symmetric and may involve any group of nodes, particularly the anterior and posterior cervical chains. Adenopathy may be the only manifestation.
Other symptoms and signs include
Mild hepatomegaly and hepatic percussion tenderness
Periorbital edema and palatal petechiae
Less frequently maculopapular eruptions
Splenomegaly, which occurs in about 50% of cases, is maximal during the 2nd and 3rd week and usually results in only a barely palpable splenic tip.
Although recovery is usually complete, complications may be dramatic.
Neurologic complications are rare but may include encephalitis, seizures, Guillain-Barré syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, viral meningitis, myelitis, cranial nerve palsies, and psychosis. Encephalitis may manifest with cerebellar dysfunction, or it may be global and rapidly progressive, similar to herpes simplex encephalitis, but is usually self-limited.
Hematologic complications are usually self-limited. They include
Transient mild granulocytopenia or thrombocytopenia occurs in about 50% of patients; severe cases with bacterial infection or bleeding occur less frequently. Hemolytic anemia is often due to anti-i-specific cold-agglutinin antibodies.
Splenic rupture can have severe consequences. It can result from splenic enlargement and capsular swelling, which are maximal 10 to 21 days after presentation. A history of trauma is present only about half of the time. Rupture is usually painful but occasionally causes painless hypotension. For treatment, see Splenic Injury Treatment Splenic injury usually results from blunt abdominal trauma. Patients often have abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the shoulder, and tenderness. Diagnosis is made by CT or ultrasonography... read more .
Respiratory complications include, rarely, upper airway obstruction due to pharyngeal or paratracheal lymphadenopathy; respiratory complications may respond to corticosteroids.
Hepatic complications include elevated aminotransferase levels (about 2 to 3 times normal, returning to baseline over 3 to 4 weeks); they occur in about 95% of patients. If jaundice or more severe enzyme elevations occur, other causes of hepatitis Causes of Hepatitis Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver characterized by diffuse or patchy necrosis. Hepatitis may be acute or chronic (usually defined as lasting > 6 months). Most cases of acute viral hepatitis... read more should be investigated.
Overwhelming infection with EBV occurs sporadically but may cluster in families, particularly those with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome results from a T-cell and natural killer cell defect and is characterized by an abnormal response to Epstein-Barr virus infection, leading to liver failure... read more . Survivors of overwhelming primary EBV infection are at risk of developing agammaglobulinemia or lymphoma.
Diagnosis of Infectious Mononucleosis
Heterophile antibody test
Sometimes EBV serologic testing
Infectious mononucleosis should be suspected in patients with typical symptoms and signs. Exudative pharyngitis, anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, and fever may be clinically indistinguishable from those caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci Streptococcal Infections Streptococci are gram-positive aerobic organisms that cause many disorders, including pharyngitis, pneumonia, wound and skin infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. Symptoms vary with the organ... read more . However, posterior cervical or generalized adenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly suggests infectious mononucleosis. Moreover, detection of streptococci in the oropharynx does not exclude infectious mononucleosis.
Primary HIV infection Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results from 1 of 2 similar retroviruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) that destroy CD4+ lymphocytes and impair cell-mediated immunity, increasing risk of certain... read more can produce a clinical picture resembling acute EBV infection. If patients have risk factors for HIV infection, the following should be done:
Quantitative HIV RNA viral load in blood
Combination antibody immunoassay and p24 antigen assay
HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/Western blot is usually negative during the acute infection and thus should not be used alone to diagnose early primary HIV infection. Quantitative HIV RNA and p24 antigen detection are more sensitive for diagnosing acute HIV infection because HIV RNA and p24 antigen are present in blood before HIV antibodies develop.
Pearls & Pitfalls
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection Cytomegalovirus (CMV, human herpesvirus type 5) can cause infections that have a wide range of severity. A syndrome of infectious mononucleosis that lacks severe pharyngitis is common. Severe... read more (CMV) may also cause a mononucleosis syndrome, with atypical lymphocytosis as well as hepatosplenomegaly and hepatitis but usually not with severe pharyngitis.
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Symptoms range from none to benign lymphadenopathy, a mononucleosis-like illness, to life-threatening central nervous system (CNS) disease... read more may cause a syndrome similar to infectious mononucleosis with fever and lymphadenopathy but usually not with pharyngitis.
Laboratory diagnosis usually involves a complete blood count and EBV serologic testing. Lymphocytes that are morphologically atypical account for up to 30% of the white blood cells. Although individual lymphocytes may resemble leukemic lymphocytes, lymphocytes are heterogeneous, which is unlikely in leukemia Overview of Leukemia Leukemia is a malignant condition involving the excess production of immature or abnormal leukocytes, which eventually suppresses the production of normal blood cells and results in symptoms... read more . Atypical lymphocytes may also be present in HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results from 1 of 2 similar retroviruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) that destroy CD4+ lymphocytes and impair cell-mediated immunity, increasing risk of certain... read more or CMV Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection Cytomegalovirus (CMV, human herpesvirus type 5) can cause infections that have a wide range of severity. A syndrome of infectious mononucleosis that lacks severe pharyngitis is common. Severe... read more infection, hepatitis B Hepatitis B, Acute Hepatitis B is caused by a DNA virus that is often parenterally transmitted. It causes typical symptoms of viral hepatitis, including anorexia, malaise, and jaundice. Fulminant hepatitis and... read more , influenza B Influenza Influenza is a viral respiratory infection causing fever, coryza, cough, headache, and malaise. Mortality is possible during seasonal epidemics, particularly among high-risk patients (eg, those... read more , rubella Rubella (See also Congenital Rubella.) Rubella is a contagious viral infection that may cause adenopathy, rash, and sometimes constitutional symptoms, which are usually mild and brief. Infection during... read more , or other viral illnesses, so diagnosis requires serologic testing. However, very high atypical lymphocyte counts are typically seen only in primary EBV and CMV infection.
Two serologic tests are used to diagnose acute EBV infection:
Heterophile antibody testing
Specific EBV antibody testing
Heterophile antibodies are measured using various agglutination card (monospot) tests. However, heterophile antibodies are present in only 50% of patients < 5 years and in about 80 to 90% of adolescents and adults with infectious mononucleosis. Importantly, the heterophile antibody test may be false-positive in some patients with acute HIV infection. The titer and prevalence of heterophile antibodies rise during the 2nd and 3rd week of illness. Thus, if the diagnosis is suspected and the heterophile antibody test is negative early in clinical illness (in the first week), testing can be repeated approximately 7 days later. Alternatively, EBV antibody testing can be performed..
EBV-specific antibody testing is highly sensitive. The presence of IgM antibodies to the EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) indicates primary EBV infection (these antibodies disappear within 3 months after infection). IgG VCA (EBV VCA-IgG) also develops early in primary EBV infection, but these antibodies persist for life. EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA-IgG) antibodies develop later (after 2 to 4 months ) in acute EBV infection and also persist for life. If EBV antibody titers are negative or indicate remote infection (ie, positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM antibodies), other diagnoses that can present with similar symptoms (eg, acute HIV infection Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results from 1 of 2 similar retroviruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) that destroy CD4+ lymphocytes and impair cell-mediated immunity, increasing risk of certain... read more , CMV infection Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection Cytomegalovirus (CMV, human herpesvirus type 5) can cause infections that have a wide range of severity. A syndrome of infectious mononucleosis that lacks severe pharyngitis is common. Severe... read more ) should be considered.
Prognosis for Infectious Mononucleosis
Infectious mononucleosis is usually self-limited. Duration of illness varies; the acute phase lasts about 2 weeks. Generally, 20% of patients can return to school or work within 1 week, and 50% within 2 weeks. Fatigue may persist for several more weeks or, in up to 10% of cases, for months.
Death occurs in < 1%, mostly resulting from complications (eg, encephalitis, splenic rupture, airway obstruction).
Treatment of Infectious Mononucleosis
Corticosteroids possibly helpful for severe disease
Treatment of infectious mononucleosis is supportive. Patients are encouraged to rest during the acute phase but can resume activity when fever, pharyngitis, and malaise abate. To prevent splenic rupture, patients should avoid heavy lifting and contact sports for 1 month after presentation and until splenomegaly (which can be monitored by ultrasonography) resolves.
Although corticosteroids hasten defervescence and relieve pharyngitis, they generally should not be used in uncomplicated disease. Corticosteroids can be helpful for complications such as impending airway obstruction, severe thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. Although oral or IV acyclovir decreases oropharyngeal shedding of EBV, there is no convincing evidence to warrant its clinical use.
EBV infection is very common; the virus remains within the host for life and is intermittently and asymptomatically shed from the oropharynx.
Only about 5% of patients acquire EBV from someone who has acute infection.
Typical manifestations include fatigue (sometimes persisting weeks or months), fever, pharyngitis, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy.
Uncommon severe complications include encephalitis and other neurologic manifestations, splenic rupture, airway obstruction due to tonsillar enlargement, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and jaundice.
Do heterophile antibody testing or specific EBV antibody testing.
Primary HIV infection can have a clinical presentation similar to acute EBV; therefore, HIV testing is done in patients at risk of HIV infection.
Provide supportive care and recommend avoidance of heavy lifting and contact sports; antivirals are not indicated.
Consider corticosteroids for complications such as impending airway obstruction, severe thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia.