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Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine

By

Margot L. Savoy

, MD, MPH, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University

Last full review/revision Jun 2021| Content last modified Jun 2021
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Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines help prevent Haemophilus infections Haemophilus Infections The gram-negative bacteria Haemophilus species cause numerous mild and serious infections, including bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, cellulitis, and epiglottitis... read more but not infections caused by other strains of H. influenzae bacteria. H. influenzae causes many childhood infections, including bacteremia Bacteremia Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It can occur spontaneously, during certain tissue infections, with use of indwelling genitourinary or IV catheters, or after dental... read more , meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Acute bacterial meningitis is rapidly progressive bacterial infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space. Findings typically include headache, fever, and nuchal rigidity. Diagnosis is by... read more , pneumonia Overview of Pneumonia Pneumonia is acute inflammation of the lungs caused by infection. Initial diagnosis is usually based on chest x-ray and clinical findings. Causes, symptoms, treatment, preventive measures, and... read more , sinusitis Sinusitis Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses due to viral, bacterial, or fungal infections or allergic reactions. Symptoms include nasal obstruction and congestion, purulent rhinorrhea... read more Sinusitis , otitis media Otitis Media (Acute) Acute otitis media is a bacterial or viral infection of the middle ear, usually accompanying an upper respiratory infection. Symptoms include otalgia, often with systemic symptoms (eg, fever... read more Otitis Media (Acute) , and epiglottitis Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is a rapidly progressive bacterial infection of the epiglottis and surrounding tissues that may lead to sudden respiratory obstruction and death. Symptoms include severe sore throat... read more Epiglottitis .

For more information, see Hib Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Vaccine Recommendations and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Hib Vaccination. A summary of changes to the 2021 adult immunization schedule is available here.

Preparations of Hib Vaccine

Hib vaccines are prepared from the purified capsule of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). All Hib vaccines use polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) as the polysaccharide, but 4 different protein carriers are used in the 4 different Hib conjugate vaccines available:

  • Diphtheria toxoid (PRP-D)

  • Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein (PRP-OMP)

  • Tetanus toxoid (PRP-T)

  • Diphtheria mutant carrier protein CRM197 (HbOC)

PRP-D and HbOC vaccines are no longer available in the US.

Indications for Hib Vaccine

This vaccine is also recommended for

Contraindications and Precautions of Hib Vaccine

The main contraindication for Hib vaccines is

The main precaution with Hib vaccines is

  • Moderate or severe illness with or without a fever (vaccination is postponed until the illness resolves)

Dose and Administration of Hib Vaccine

The Hib vaccine dose is 0.5 mL IM. A primary childhood series is given in 3 doses at age 2, 4, and 6 months or in 2 doses at age 2 and 4 months, depending on the formulation. In either case, a booster is recommended at age 12 to 15 months.

One dose is given to older children, adolescents, and adults who have asplenia or who are scheduled for an elective splenectomy if they are unimmunized. Some experts suggest giving a dose before elective splenectomy regardless of vaccination history. The dose is given ≥ 14 days before elective splenectomy if possible.

A 3-dose regimen is given 6 to 12 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; doses are separated by ≥ 4 weeks.

Adverse Effects of Hib Vaccine

Adverse effects are rare. They can include pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site and, in children, fever, crying, and irritability.

More Information

The following are some English-language resources that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of these resources.

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NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Consumer Version
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