Common causes of eye injury include domestic or industrial accidents (eg, during hammering or exposure to chemicals or cleaners), assault, sporting injuries (including air- or paint pellet-gun injuries), and motor vehicle crashes (including airbag injuries). Injury may be to the eyeball (globe), surrounding soft tissues (including muscles, nerves, and tendons), and/or bones of the orbit.
General evaluation should include the following:
Tests of visual acuity
Range of extraocular motion
Visual fields to confrontation
Pupillary appearance and responses
Location and depth of lid and conjunctival lacerations and of foreign bodies
Depth of anterior chamber
Presence of anterior chamber or vitreous hemorrhage, cataract, or red reflex
Intraocular pressure determination
Detailed examination of the sclera, anterior segment (cornea, conjunctiva, anterior chamber, ciliary body, iris), lens, and anterior vitreous is best done with a slit lamp (see Slit-lamp examination Slit-lamp examination The eye can be examined with routine equipment, including a standard ophthalmoscope; thorough examination requires special equipment and evaluation by an ophthalmologist. History includes location... read more ). Although direct ophthalmoscopy can be used to examine the lens and posterior structures of the eye, indirect ophthalmoscopy, usually done by an ophthalmologist, provides a more detailed and binocular view of these structures. Indications for indirect ophthalmoscopy include clinical suspicion of vitreous abnormalities (eg, hemorrhage, foreign body) and retinal abnormalities; clinical suspicion may be based on symptoms, injury mechanism, absence of the red reflex, or retinal abnormalities visible with direct ophthalmoscopy.
Because direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy are best done through a dilated pupil, about 15 to 30 minutes before this examination, mydriatics (such as one drop of cyclopentolate 1% and one drop of phenylephrine 2.5%, for adults) can be instilled when there is no contraindication to a dilated eye examination (eg, shallow anterior chamber, allergy, ruptured globe) and with caution in pregnancy. If an intraocular or orbital foreign body or an orbital fracture is suspected, CT is done.
Use of eye guards, goggles, or special eyeglasses, such as those constructed of polycarbonate lenses in a wrap-around polyamide frame, is a simple precaution that greatly reduces the risk of injury.
When eye drops are prescribed, each dose includes only one drop.
(See also Retinal Detachment Retinal Detachment Retinal detachment is separation of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. The most common cause is a retinal break (a tear or, less commonly, a hole—rhegmatogenous... read more .)