An evaluation of the elbow includes a physical examination Physical Examination of the Elbow An evaluation of the elbow includes a physical examination and sometimes arthrocentesis (see How To Do Elbow Arthrocentesis). (See also Evaluation of the Patient With Joint Symptoms.) Synovial... read more and sometimes arthrocentesis (see How To Do Elbow Arthrocentesis How To Do Elbow Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis of the elbow is the process of puncturing the elbow joint with a needle to withdraw synovial fluid. The lateral approach is described. (See also Evaluation of the Patient with... read more ).
(See also Evaluation of the Patient With Joint Symptoms Evaluation of the Patient With Joint Symptoms Some musculoskeletal disorders affect primarily the joints, causing arthritis. Others affect primarily the bones (eg, fractures, Paget disease of bone, tumors), muscles or other extra-articular... read more .)
Physical Examination of the Elbow
Synovial swelling and thickening caused by joint disease occur in the lateral aspect between the radial head and olecranon, causing a bulge. Full 180° extension of the joint should be attempted. Although full extension is possible with nonarthritic or extra-articular problems such as tendinitis, its loss is an early change in arthritis. The area around the joint is examined for swellings. Rheumatoid nodules are firm, occurring especially along the extensor surface of the forearm. Tophi are sometimes visible under the skin as cream-colored aggregates and indicate gout. Nodules in the olecranon bursa may be either rheumatoid nodules or tophi. Swelling of the olecranon bursa occurs over the tip of the olecranon, is cystic, and does not limit joint motion; infection, trauma, gout Gout Gout is a disorder caused by hyperuricemia (serum urate > 6.8 mg/dL [> 0.4 mmol/L]) that results in the precipitation of monosodium urate crystals in and around joints, most often causing... read more , and rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that primarily involves the joints. RA causes damage mediated by cytokines, chemokines, and metalloproteases. Characteristically... read more are possible causes. Epitrochlear nodes occur above the medial epicondyle; they can result from inflammation in the hand but can also suggest sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder resulting in noncaseating granulomas in one or more organs and tissues; etiology is unknown. The lungs and lymphatic system are most often affected, but... read more , syphilis Syphilis Syphilis is caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum and is characterized by 3 sequential clinical, symptomatic stages separated by periods of asymptomatic latent infection. Common... read more , or lymphoma Overview of Lymphoma Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors arising in the reticuloendothelial and lymphatic systems. The major types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (see table Comparison of... read more .