Delirium (sometimes called acute confusional state) and dementia are the most common causes of cognitive impairment, although affective disorders (eg, depression) can also disrupt cognition. Delirium and dementia are separate disorders but are sometimes difficult to distinguish. In both, cognition is disordered; however, the following helps distinguish them:
Other specific characteristics also help distinguish the 2 disorders (see table Differences Between Delirium and Dementia):
Delirium often develops in patients with dementia. Mistaking delirium for dementia in an older patient—a common clinical error—must be avoided, particularly when delirium is superimposed on chronic dementia. No laboratory test can definitively establish the cause of cognitive impairment; a thorough history and physical examination as well as knowledge of baseline function are essential.