Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

honeypot link

Penile and Urethral Anomalies

By

Ronald Rabinowitz

, MD, University of Rochester Medical Center;


Jimena Cubillos

, MD, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

Last full review/revision Sep 2020| Content last modified Sep 2020
Click here for Patient Education
Topic Resources

Congenital anomalies of the urethra in boys usually involve anatomic abnormalities of the penis and vice versa. In girls, urethral anomalies may exist without other external genital abnormalities. Surgical repair is needed when function is impaired or cosmetic correction is desired.

Penile Anomalies

Chordee

This anomaly is ventral, lateral, and/or rotational curvature of the penis, which is most apparent with erection and is caused by fibrous tissue along the usual course of the corpus spongiosum, or by a size difference between the two corpora cavernosa. Chordee may be associated with hypospadias Hypospadias Congenital anomalies of the urethra in boys usually involve anatomic abnormalities of the penis and vice versa. In girls, urethral anomalies may exist without other external genital abnormalities... read more Hypospadias . Severe deformity may require surgical correction.

Epispadias

Treatment of epispadias is surgical. In partial epispadias, prognosis for continence with treatment is good. In complete epispadias, surgical reconstruction of the penis alone may lead to persistent incontinence; bladder outlet reconstruction is required to achieve complete urinary control.

Hypospadias

This anomaly is caused by failure of tubularization and fusion of the urethral groove. It almost always occurs in boys, in whom the urethra opens onto the underside of the penile shaft, at the penoscrotal junction, between the scrotal folds, or in the perineum. The foreskin fails to become circumferential and appears as a dorsal hood. Hypospadias is frequently associated with chordee Chordee Congenital anomalies of the urethra in boys usually involve anatomic abnormalities of the penis and vice versa. In girls, urethral anomalies may exist without other external genital abnormalities... read more Chordee .

Prognosis for functional and cosmetic correction is good. Outpatient surgery at about 6 months of age involves construction of a neourethra using penile shaft skin or foreskin and repair of the chordee.

Hypospadias is extremely rare in girls; the urethra opens into the vaginal introitus.

Types of Hypospadias

Phimosis and paraphimosis

Phimosis may respond to topical corticosteroids and gentle stretching; some boys require circumcision.

Paraphimosis should be reduced urgently because the constricting foreskin functions as a tourniquet, causing edema and pain. Firm circumferential compression of the edematous foreskin with the fingers may reduce edema sufficiently to allow the foreskin to be restored to its normal position by pushing the glans back through the tight foreskin using both thumbs. If this technique is ineffective, a dorsal slit done using a local anesthetic relieves the condition temporarily. When edema has resolved, the phimosis may be treated with circumcision or topical corticosteroids.

Other penile anomalies

A very tight frenulum may prevent complete retraction of the foreskin or cause pain or bleeding with foreskin retraction or erection. Frenulectomy may be sufficient to resolve symptoms if patients do not want circumcision.

Less common anomalies include penile agenesis, duplication, and lymphedema. Many anomalies also involve urethral abnormality, or other anomalies, such as exstrophy Bladder exstrophy Congenital urinary bladder anomalies often occur without other genitourinary abnormalities. They may cause infection, retention, incontinence, and reflux. Symptomatic anomalies may require surgery... read more Bladder exstrophy . Treatment of most anomalies is surgical.

Microphallus results from androgen deficiency or insensitivity; in boys with deficiency, treatment is testosterone supplementation.

Urethral Anomalies

Urethral meatal stenosis

Most commonly acquired after circumcision in newborn boys, urethral meatal stenosis is occasionally congenital and associated with hypospadias Hypospadias Congenital anomalies of the urethra in boys usually involve anatomic abnormalities of the penis and vice versa. In girls, urethral anomalies may exist without other external genital abnormalities... read more Hypospadias . Meatotomy is needed for a significantly deflected stream or for a pinpoint stream.

Urethral stricture

Urethral stricture Urethral Stricture Urethral stricture is scarring that obstructs the anterior urethral lumen. Urethral stricture can be Congenital Acquired Anything that damages the urethral epithelium or corpus spongiosum can... read more causes obstruction along some part of the length of the urethra. It almost always occurs in boys, is usually acquired, and typically results from a crush injury after straddle trauma. Urethral strictures may also be iatrogenic and occur after surgery, most commonly after hypospadias repair, or after traumatic catheterization. Congenital urethral stricture may manifest similarly to urethral valves and may be diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography, or postnatally by symptoms and signs of outlet obstruction or patent urachus and is confirmed by retrograde urethrography. Initial management is often with endoscopic urethrotomy, although open urethroplasty may be necessary.

Urethral duplications and triplications are urethral anomalies. The patent urethra is the most ventral channel. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) should be done to determine patency and detect connection between the channels and the bladder. Surgical intervention is almost always necessary.

Urethral valves

In boys, folds in the posterior urethra may act as valves impairing urine flow. Urologic sequelae of urethral valves include urinary hesitancy, decreased urinary stream, urinary tract infection Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Children Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined by ≥ 5 × 104 colonies/mL in a catheterized urine specimen or, in older children, by repeated voided specimens with ≥ 105 colonies/mL. In younger children... read more , overflow incontinence, myogenic bladder malfunction, vesicoureteral reflux Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Vesicoureteral reflux is retrograde passage of urine from the bladder back into the ureter and sometimes also into the renal collecting system, depending on severity. Reflux predisposes to urinary... read more , upper urinary tract damage, and renal insufficiency. The valves occasionally occur with a patent urachus. Because fetal urine excretion contributes to the amniotic fluid, severe urethral obstruction can cause decreased amniotic fluid (oligohydramnios Oligohydramnios Oligohydramnios is a deficient volume of amniotic fluid; it is associated with maternal and fetal complications. Diagnosis is by ultrasonographic measurement of amniotic fluid volume. Management... read more ), which can cause lung hypoplasia and consequent pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary hypoplasia, and/or respiratory failure. Pulmonary hypertension can then cause systemic hypertension. Severe cases may result in perinatal demise.

Diagnosis is often made by findings on routine prenatal ultrasonography, including severe bilateral hydroureteronephrosis or oligohydramnios. Cases suspected postnatally (often because of history of an abnormal urine stream) are confirmed by immediate voiding cystourethrography.

Surgery (usually via endoscopy) is done at time of diagnosis to prevent progressive renal deterioration. If endoscopic valve ablation is not feasible, a temporary vesicostomy is indicated.

A much less common anomaly, diverticulum of the anterior urethra, may act as a valve (anterior urethral valve). This anomaly is frequently treated endoscopically and occasionally by open reconstruction.

Urethral prolapse

Urethral prolapse is protrusion of a small portion of the distal urethra outside the meatus. Prolapse occurs mainly in girls, most commonly in blacks. It may appear in infancy or later in childhood and usually manifests as an interlabial mass. When urethral prolapse occurs, the opening of the urethra resembles a donut with the meatus located in the center. It may become irritated and cause pain and/or bleeding. Treatment is usually conservative with a topical estrogen cream. Surgical intervention is rarely necessary.

Click here for Patient Education
NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Consumer Version
Professionals also read

Test your knowledge

Mumps
Mumps is an acute, contagious, systemic viral disease caused by a paramyxovirus. It is spread by droplets or saliva and probably enters through the nose and mouth. After a 12- to 24-day incubation period, headache, anorexia, malaise, and low-grade fever usually develop. Then several other symptoms develop over the next few days. Of these symptoms, edema of which of the following structures is most likely to peak on the 2nd day and typically last 5 to 7 days? 
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
 

Also of Interest

 
TOP