(Hyponatremia in adults Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is decrease in serum sodium concentration 136 mEq/L ( 136 mmol/L) caused by an excess of water relative to solute. Common causes include diuretic use, diarrhea, heart failure, liver... read more is discussed elsewhere.)
Etiology of Neonatal Hyponatremia
The most frequent cause of neonatal hyponatremia is hypovolemic dehydration caused by vomiting, diarrhea, or both. When fluid loses are replaced with fluids that have little or no sodium (eg, some juices), hyponatremia can result.
A less frequent cause is euvolemic hyponatremia caused by inappropriate ADH secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) Hyponatremia is decrease in serum sodium concentration 136 mEq/L ( 136 mmol/L) caused by an excess of water relative to solute. Common causes include diuretic use, diarrhea, heart failure, liver... read more and consequent water retention. Possible causes of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion include intracranial hemorrhage Intracranial Hemorrhage The forces of labor and delivery occasionally cause physical injury to the infant. The incidence of neonatal injury resulting from difficult or traumatic deliveries is decreasing due to increasing... read more , central nervous system (CNS) infection, and rarely CNS tumors. Also, overdilution of infant formula can lead to water intoxication.
Finally, hypervolemic hyponatremia occurs in the setting of water retention and excess sodium retention, such as in heart failure or renal failure.
Symptoms and Signs of Neonatal Hyponatremia
Symptoms and signs of neonatal hyponatremia include nausea and vomiting, apathy, headache, seizures, hypothermia, weakness, and coma. Infants with hyponatremic dehydration may appear quite ill, because hyponatremia causes disproportionate reductions in extracellular fluid volume. Symptoms and signs are related to duration and degree of hyponatremia.
Diagnosis of Neonatal Hyponatremia
Serum sodium concentration
Diagnosis of neonatal hyponatremia is suspected because of symptoms and signs and confirmed by measuring serum sodium concentration. In dehydration, an increase in blood urea nitrogen may be observed.
Treatment of Neonatal Hyponatremia
IV 5% dextrose/0.45% to 0.9% saline solution
Rarely IV hypertonic (3%) saline solution
Treatment of neonatal hyponatremia is with 5% D/0.45% to 0.9% saline solution IV in volumes equal to the calculated deficit, given over as many days as it takes to correct the sodium concentration by no more than 10 to 12 mEq/L/day (10 to 12 mmol/L/day) to avoid rapid fluid shifts in the brain. Neonates with hypovolemic hyponatremia need volume expansion, using a solution containing salt to correct the sodium deficit (10 to 12 mEq/kg [10 to 12 mmol/kg] of body weight or even 15 mEq/kg [15 mmol/kg] in young infants with severe hyponatremia) and include sodium maintenance needs (3 mEq/kg/day [3 mmol/kg/day] in 5% dextrose solution). Neonates with symptomatic hyponatremia (eg, lethargy, confusion) require emergency treatment with 3% saline solution IV to prevent seizure or coma.