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Drug Metabolism

By

Jennifer Le

, PharmD, MAS, BCPS-ID, FIDSA, FCCP, FCSHP, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego

Last full review/revision Oct 2020| Content last modified Oct 2020
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The liver is the principal site of drug metabolism (for review, see [1]). Although metabolism typically inactivates drugs, some drug metabolites are pharmacologically active—sometimes even more so than the parent compound. An inactive or weakly active substance that has an active metabolite is called a prodrug, especially if designed to deliver the active moiety more effectively.

Drugs can be metabolized by oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, hydration, conjugation, condensation, or isomerization; whatever the process, the goal is to make the drug easier to excrete. The enzymes involved in metabolism are present in many tissues but generally are more concentrated in the liver. Drug metabolism rates vary among patients. Some patients metabolize a drug so rapidly that therapeutically effective blood and tissue concentrations are not reached; in others, metabolism may be so slow that usual doses have toxic effects. Individual drug metabolism rates are influenced by genetic factors, coexisting disorders (particularly chronic liver disorders and advanced heart failure), and drug interactions (especially those involving induction or inhibition of metabolism).

For many drugs, metabolism occurs in 2 phases. Phase I reactions involve formation of a new or modified functional group or cleavage (oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis); these reactions are nonsynthetic. Phase II reactions involve conjugation with an endogenous substance (eg, glucuronic acid, sulfate, glycine); these reactions are synthetic. Metabolites formed in synthetic reactions are more polar and thus more readily excreted by the kidneys (in urine) and the liver (in bile) than those formed in nonsynthetic reactions. Some drugs undergo only phase I or phase II reactions; thus, phase numbers reflect functional rather than sequential classification.

Hepatic drug transporters are present throughout parenchymal liver cells and affect a drug’s liver disposition, metabolism, and elimination (for review, see [1, 2]). The 2 primary types of transporters are influx, which translocate molecules into the liver, and efflux, which mediate excretion of drugs into the blood or bile. Genetic polymorphisms can variably affect the expression and function of hepatic drug transporters to potentially alter a patient's susceptibility to drug adverse effects and drug-induced liver injury. For example, carriers of certain transporter genotypes exhibit increased blood levels of statins and are more susceptible to statin-induced myopathy when statins are used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia (1, 2).

Rate

For almost all drugs, the metabolism rate in any given pathway has an upper limit (capacity limitation). However, at therapeutic concentrations of most drugs, usually only a small fraction of the metabolizing enzyme’s sites are occupied, and the metabolism rate increases with drug concentration. In such cases, called first-order elimination (or kinetics), the metabolism rate of the drug is a constant fraction of the drug remaining in the body (ie, the drug has a specific half-life).

For example, if 500 mg is present in the body at time zero, after metabolism, 250 mg may be present at 1 hour and 125 mg at 2 hours (illustrating a half-life of 1 hour). However, when most of the enzyme sites are occupied, metabolism occurs at its maximal rate and does not change in proportion to drug concentration; instead, a fixed amount of drug is metabolized per unit time (zero-order kinetics). In this case, if 500 mg is present in the body at time zero, after metabolism, 450 mg may be present at 1 hour and 400 mg at 2 hours (illustrating a maximal clearance of 50 mg/h and no specific half-life). As drug concentration increases, metabolism shifts from first-order to zero-order kinetics.

Cytochrome P-450

The most important enzyme system of phase I metabolism is cytochrome P-450 (CYP450), a microsomal superfamily of isoenzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of many drugs. The electrons are supplied by NADPH–CYP450 reductase, a flavoprotein that transfers electrons from NADPH (the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) to CYP450.

CYP450 enzymes can be induced or inhibited by many drugs and substances resulting in drug interactions in which one drug enhances the toxicity or reduces the therapeutic effect of another drug. For examples of drugs that interact with specific enzymes, see tables Common Substances That Interact With Cytochrome P-450 Enzymes and Drug Interactions.

Table
icon

Common Substances That Interact With Cytochrome P-450 Enzymes

Enzyme

Substrates

Inhibitors

Inducers

CYP1A2

Acetaminophen

Caffeine

Clarithromycin

Estradiol

Haloperidol

Lidocaine

Methadone

Olanzapine

Propranolol

Ritonavir

Tacrine

Theophylline

Tricyclic antidepressants

Verapamil

(R)-Warfarin

Amiodarone

Cimetidine

Ciprofloxacin

Erythromycin

Fluvoxamine

Ticlopidine

Charcoal-broiled beef

Cigarette smoke

Omeprazole

Phenobarbital

Phenytoin

Rifampin

CYP2C9

Celecoxib

Diclofenac

Fluoxetine

Glipizide

Glyburide

Indomethacin

Nifedipine

Phenytoin

Piroxicam

Progesterone

Testosterone

Tricyclic antidepressants

Valproate

Voriconazole

(S)-Warfarin

Amiodarone

Cimetidine

Fluconazole

Lovastatin

Ritonavir

Sertraline

Sulfamethoxazole

Topiramate

Trimethoprim

Voriconazole

Zafirlukast

Dexamethasone

Phenobarbital

Other barbiturates

Phenytoin

Rifampin

CYP2C19

Diazepam

(S)-Mephenytoin

Omeprazole

Pentamidine

Propranolol

Voriconazole

(R)-Warfarin

Cimetidine

Fluoxetine

Fluvoxamine

Ketoconazole

Lansoprazole

Omeprazole

Paroxetine

Ticlopidine

Carbamazepine

Phenobarbital

Prednisone

Rifampin

CYP2D6

Beta blockers

Codeine

Dextromethorphan

Flecainide

Haloperidol

Lidocaine

Mexiletine

Morphine

Omeprazole

Phenothiazines

Quinidine

Risperidone

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Tamoxifen

Testosterone

Tramadol

Trazodone

Tricyclic antidepressants

Venlafaxine

Amiodarone

Bupropion

Celecoxib

Cimetidine

Fluoxetine

Fluvoxamine

Metoclopramide

Methadone

Paroxetine

Quinidine

Ritonavir

Sertraline

Carbamazepine

Dexamethasone

Phenobarbital

Phenytoin

Rifampin

CYP2E1

Acetaminophen

Alcohol

Disulfiram

Alcohol

Isoniazid

Tobacco use

CYP3A4

Amiodarone

Aprepitant

Azole antifungals

Benzodiazepines

Calcium channel blockers

Caffeine

Carbamazepine

Clarithromycin

Cyclosporine

Delavirdine

Enalapril

Estradiol

Estrogen

Erythromycin

Fentanyl

Finasteride

Indinavir

Lidocaine

Lopinavir

Loratidine

Methadone

Nelfinavir

Omeprazole

Opioid analgesics

Prednisone

Progesterone

Ritonavir

Saquinavir

Sildenafil

Sirolimus

Statins

Tacrolimus

Tamoxifen

Tricyclic antidepressants

(R)-Warfarin

Amiodarone

Amprenavir

Atazanavir

Azole antifungals

Cimetidine

Ciprofloxacin

Clarithromycin

Delavirdine

Diltiazem

Erythromycin

Fluoxetine

Fluvoxamine

Grapefruit juice

Indinavir

Metronidazole

Nefazodone

Nelfinavir

Nifedipine

Omeprazole

Paroxetine

Posaconazole

Propoxyphene

Ritonavir

Saquinavir

Sertraline

Verapamil

Voriconazole

Carbamazepine

Dexamethasone

Isoniazid

Phenobarbital

Phenytoin

Prednisone

Rifampin

With aging, the liver’s capacity for metabolism through the CYP450 enzyme system is reduced by 30% because hepatic volume and blood flow are decreased. Thus, drugs that are metabolized through this system reach higher levels and have prolonged half-lives in older people (see figure Comparison of pharmacokinetic outcomes for diazepam in a younger man [A]...). Because neonates have partially developed hepatic microsomal enzyme systems, they also have difficulty metabolizing many drugs.

Conjugation

Glucuronidation, the most common phase II reaction, is the only one that occurs in the liver microsomal enzyme system. Glucuronides are secreted in bile and eliminated in urine. Thus, conjugation makes most drugs more soluble and easily excreted by the kidneys. Amino acid conjugation with glutamine or glycine produces conjugates that are readily excreted in urine but not extensively secreted in bile. Aging does not affect glucuronidation. However, in neonates, conversion to glucuronide is slow, potentially resulting in serious effects (eg, as with chloramphenicol).

Conjugation may also occur through acetylation or sulfoconjugation. Sulfate esters are polar and readily excreted in urine. Aging does not affect these processes.

General references

  • 1. Patel M, Taskar KS, Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ: Importance of hepatic transporters in clinical disposition of drugs and their metabolites. J Clin Pharmacol 56(Suppl 7):S23–S39, 2016.  doi: 10.1002/jcph.671

  • 2. Pan G: Roles of hepatic drug transporters in drug disposition and liver toxicity. Adv Exp Med Biol1141:293-340, 2019. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-7647-4_6

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Drug Name Select Trade
DELSYM
No US brand name
REGLAN
BIAXIN
CILOXAN, CIPRO
FLAGYL
OZURDEX
TYLENOL
TEGRETOL
NIZORAL
INDOCIN
PREVACID
ERY-TAB, ERYTHROCIN
CRINONE
ELIXOPHYLLIN
DELATESTRYL
NOXAFIL
VFEND
NEORAL, SANDIMMUNE
DIFLUCAN
INDERAL
ACCOLATE
LUVOX
EFFEXOR XR
RISPERDAL
RESCRIPTOR
HALDOL
PROPECIA, PROSCAR
NEBUPENT
PAXIL
ZOLOFT
PROGRAF
INVIRASE
PRILOSEC
ANTABUSE
RAYOS
REYATAZ
CORDARONE
EMEND
PROZAC, SARAFEM
ADALAT CC, PROCARDIA
TOPAMAX
VIRACEPT
ZYPREXA
ALTOPREV
CATAFLAM, VOLTAREN
TAGAMET
VIAGRA
CALAN
RAPAMUNE
OLEPTRO
WELLBUTRIN, ZYBAN
GLUCOTROL
XYLOCAINE
CELEBREX
ESTRADERM, ESTROGEL, VIVELLE
DILANTIN
NORVIR
CARDIZEM, CARTIA XT, DILACOR XR
LANIAZID
VASOTEC
NOLVADEX
FELDENE
DOLOPHINE
DIABETA, GLYNASE
CRIXIVAN
COUMADIN
ULTRAM
VALIUM
DURAMORPH PF, MS CONTIN
ACTIQ, DURAGESIC, SUBLIMAZE
RIFADIN, RIMACTANE
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