The larynx contains the vocal cords and serves as the opening to the tracheobronchial tree. Laryngeal disorders include
Other disorders that affect the larynx include acute laryngotracheobronchitis Croup Croup is acute inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tracts most commonly caused by parainfluenza virus type 1 infection. It is characterized by a brassy, barking cough and inspiratory... read more (croup), epiglottitis Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is a rapidly progressive bacterial infection of the epiglottis and surrounding tissues that may lead to sudden respiratory obstruction and death. Symptoms include severe sore throat... read more , and laryngomalacia (see table Some Causes of Stridor Some Causes of Stridor Stridor is a high-pitched, predominantly inspiratory sound. It is most commonly associated with acute disorders, such as foreign body aspiration, but can be due to more chronic disorders, such... read more ). For removal of a foreign body via the Heimlich maneuver, see Clearing and Opening the Upper Airway Clearing and Opening the Upper Airway Airway management consists of Clearing the upper airway Maintaining an open air passage with a mechanical device Sometimes assisting respirations (See also Overview of Respiratory Arrest.) read more .
Most laryngeal disorders cause dysphonia, which is impairment of the voice. A persistent change in the voice (eg, > 3 weeks) requires visualization of the vocal cords, including their mobility. Although the voice changes with advancing age, becoming breathy and aperiodic, acute or prominent changes in the elderly should not be presumed to result from aging, and evaluation is required.
The examiner should take precautions to prevent COVID-19 COVID-19 Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that cause respiratory illnesses of varying severity from the common cold to fatal pneumonia. Numerous coronaviruses, first discovered in domestic poultry... read more and other infectious diseases as appropriate. The voice should be assessed and recorded, particularly if surgical procedures are planned. Examination of the larynx includes external inspection and palpation of the neck and internal visualization of the epiglottis, false cords, true cords, arytenoids, pyriform sinuses, and subglottic region below the cords. Internal visualization is accomplished by either indirect mirror examination (see figure Laryngeal disorders Laryngeal disorders The larynx contains the vocal cords and serves as the opening to the tracheobronchial tree. Laryngeal disorders include Benign laryngeal tumors Contact ulcers Laryngitis Laryngoceles read more ) or direct flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy in an outpatient setting with a topical anesthetic. Rigid laryngoscopy with the patient under general anesthesia provides the most thorough examination of the vocal cords, allowing