Middle ear disorders may be secondary to infection, eustachian tube obstruction, or trauma. Information about objects placed in the ear External Ear Obstructions The ear canal may be obstructed by cerumen (earwax), scar tissue, a tumor, a foreign body, or an insect. Itching, pain, and temporary conductive hearing loss may result. Most causes of obstruction... read more and symptoms such as rhinorrhea Nasal Congestion and Rhinorrhea Nasal congestion and rhinorrhea (runny nose) are extremely common problems that commonly occur together but occasionally occur alone. The most common causes (see table ) are Upper respiratory... read more , nasal obstruction Nasal Foreign Bodies Nasal foreign bodies are found occasionally in young children, the intellectually impaired, and patients with psychiatric conditions. Common objects pushed into the nose include cotton, paper... read more , sore throat Sore Throat Sore throat is pain in the posterior pharynx that occurs with or without swallowing. Pain can be severe; many patients refuse oral intake. Sore throat results from infection; the most common... read more , upper respiratory infection Common Cold The common cold is an acute, usually afebrile, self-limited viral infection causing upper respiratory symptoms, such as rhinorrhea, cough, and sore throat. Diagnosis is clinical. Handwashing... read more , allergies Overview of Allergic and Atopic Disorders Allergic (including atopic) and other hypersensitivity disorders are inappropriate or exaggerated immune reactions to foreign antigens. Inappropriate immune reactions include those that are... read more , headache Approach to the Patient With Headache Headache is pain in any part of the head, including the scalp, face (including the orbitotemporal area), and interior of the head. Headache is one of the most common reasons patients seek medical... read more , systemic symptoms, and fever aid in making a diagnosis. The appearance of the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane Tympanic membrane of right ear (A); tympanic cavity with tympanic membrane removed (B) often yields a diagnosis. The nose, nasopharynx, and oropharynx are examined for signs of infection and allergy and for evidence of tumors Overview of Head and Neck Tumors Head and neck cancer develops in almost 65,000 people in the United States each year. Excluding skin and thyroid cancers, > 90% of head and neck cancers are squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinomas... read more .
Middle ear function is evaluated using pneumatic otoscopy, the Weber and Rinne tuning fork tests Physical examination Worldwide, about half a billion people (almost 8% of the world's population) have hearing loss ( 1). More than 10% of people in the US have some degree of hearing loss that compromises their... read more , tympanometry Testing Worldwide, about half a billion people (almost 8% of the world's population) have hearing loss ( 1). More than 10% of people in the US have some degree of hearing loss that compromises their... read more , and other audiologic tests Testing Worldwide, about half a billion people (almost 8% of the world's population) have hearing loss ( 1). More than 10% of people in the US have some degree of hearing loss that compromises their... read more .
(See also Otic Tumors Otic Tumors A number of malignant and benign otic tumors occur, usually manifesting with hearing loss. They may also manifest with dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance. These tumors are rare and can be difficult... read more .)
Tympanic Membrane of Right Ear (A); Tympanic Cavity with Tympanic Membrane Removed (B)