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Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome


David Tanen

, MD, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Reviewed/Revised Mar 2023
Topic Resources

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is characterized by altered mental status, muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, and autonomic hyperactivity that occur when certain neuroleptic drugs are used. Clinically, neuroleptic malignant syndrome resembles malignant hyperthermia Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant hyperthermia is a life-threatening elevation in body temperature usually resulting from a hypermetabolic response to concurrent use of a depolarizing muscle relaxant and a potent,... read more . Diagnosis is clinical. Treatment is aggressive supportive care.

Among patients taking neuroleptic drugs, about 0.02 to 3% develop neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Patients of all ages can be affected.

Etiology of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Many antipsychotics and antiemetics can be causative (see table Drugs That Can Cause Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome ). The factor common to all drug causes is a decrease in dopaminergic transmission; however, the reaction is not allergic but rather idiosyncratic. Etiology and mechanism are unknown. Risk factors appear to include high drug doses, rapid dose increases, parenteral administration, and switching from one potentially causative drug to another.

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome can also occur in patients withdrawing from levodopa or dopamine agonists.


Symptoms and Signs of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome begin most often during the first 2 weeks of treatment with neuroleptic drugs but may occur earlier or after many years.

The 4 characteristic symptoms usually develop over a few days and often in the following order:

  • Altered mental status: Usually the earliest manifestation is a change in mental status, often an agitated delirium, and may progress to lethargy or unresponsiveness (reflecting encephalopathy).

  • Motor abnormalities: Patients may have generalized, severe muscle rigidity (sometimes with simultaneous tremor, leading to cogwheel rigidity) or, less often, dystonias, chorea, or other abnormalities. Reflex responses tend to be decreased.

  • Hyperthermia: Temperature is usually > 38° C and often > 40° C.

  • Autonomic hyperactivity: Autonomic activity is increased, tending to cause tachycardia, arrhythmias, tachypnea, and labile hypertension.

Diagnosis of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

  • Clinical evaluation

  • Exclusion of other disorders and complications

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome should be suspected based on clinical findings. Early manifestations can be missed because mental status changes may be overlooked or dismissed in patients with psychosis.

Other disorders can cause similar findings. For example:

There are no confirmatory tests, but patients should have testing for complications, including serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, calcium, magnesium, and creatine kinase, urine myoglobin, and usually neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis.

Treatment of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

  • Rapid cooling, control of agitation, and other aggressive supportive measures

In patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome, the causative drug is stopped and complications are treated supportively, usually in an intensive care unit (ICU) (1 Key Points Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is characterized by altered mental status, muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, and autonomic hyperactivity that occur when certain neuroleptic drugs are used. Clinically... read more ). Severe hyperthermia is treated aggressively, mainly with physical cooling (see Heatstroke: Treatment Treatment Heatstroke is hyperthermia accompanied by a systemic inflammatory response causing multiple organ dysfunction that may result in death. Symptoms include temperature > 40° C and altered mental... read more ). Some patients may require tracheal intubation (see Airway Establishment and Control/Tracheal Intubation Tracheal Intubation Most patients requiring an artificial airway can be managed with tracheal intubation, which can be Orotracheal (tube inserted through the mouth) Nasotracheal (tube inserted through the nose)... read more ) and induced coma. Benzodiazepines, given IV in high doses, can be used to control agitation. Adjunctive drug therapy can be used, although efficacy has not been shown in clinical trials. Dantrolene 0.25 to 2 mg/kg IV every 6 to 12 hours to a maximum of 10 mg/kg/24 hours can be given for hyperthermia. Bromocriptine 2.5 mg every 6 to 8 hours or, alternatively, amantadine 100 to 200 mg every 12 hours can be given orally or via nasogastric tube to help restore some dopaminergic activity. This condition may not respond to even rapid and aggressive therapy, and mortality in treated cases is about 10 to 20%.

Treatment reference

Key Points

  • Neuroleptic malignant syndrome develops infrequently in patients taking neuroleptic or other drugs that decrease dopaminergic transmission.

  • Suspect the disorder if patients develop altered mental status, muscle rigidity or involuntary movements, hyperthermia, and autonomic hyperactivity.

  • Stop the causative drug, initiate rapid cooling, and begin aggressive supportive care, usually in an ICU.

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Drug Name Select Trade
INBRIJA, Larodopa
ED Baclofen, FLEQSUVY, Gablofen, Lioresal, Lioresal Intrathecal, LYVISPAH, OZOBAX
Aluvea , BP-50% Urea , BP-K50, Carmol, CEM-Urea, Cerovel, DermacinRx Urea, Epimide-50, Gord Urea, Gordons Urea, Hydro 35 , Hydro 40, Kerafoam, Kerafoam 42, Keralac, Keralac Nailstik, Keratol, Keratol Plus, Kerol, Kerol AD, Kerol ZX, Latrix, Mectalyte, Nutraplus, RE Urea 40, RE Urea 50 , Rea Lo, Remeven, RE-U40, RYNODERM , U40, U-Kera, Ultra Mide 25, Ultralytic-2, Umecta, Umecta Nail Film, URALISS, Uramaxin , Uramaxin GT, Urea, Ureacin-10, Ureacin-20, Urealac , Ureaphil, Uredeb, URE-K , Uremez-40, Ure-Na, Uresol, Utopic, Vanamide, Xurea, X-VIATE
Dantrium, Revonto , RYANODEX
Cycloset, Parlodel
GOCOVRI, Osmolex ER, Symmetrel
NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: View Consumer Version
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