Overview of Crystal-Induced Arthritides
Arthritis can result from intra-articular deposition of crystals:
Accurate diagnosis requires synovial fluid analysis. Polarized light microscopy is used to specifically identify most crystals; basic calcium phosphate crystals are of ultramicroscopic size and require other methods. Crystals may be engulfed in WBCs or may be extracellular. The presence of crystals does not exclude the possibility of simultaneous infectious or other inflammatory forms of arthritis. Noninvasive identification of monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals is possible using ultrasonography, but currently few ultrasonographers have sufficient expertise to do this technique.
Crystal-induced arthritides include the following: