(See also Overview of Foot and Ankle Disorders Overview of Foot and Ankle Disorders Most foot problems result from anatomic disorders or abnormal function of articular or extra-articular structures (see figure Bones of the foot). Less commonly, foot problems reflect a systemic... read more .)
Bursitis is due to trauma (eg, caused by rigid or poorly fitting shoes) or inflammatory arthritis (eg, rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that primarily involves the joints. RA causes damage mediated by cytokines, chemokines, and metalloproteases. Characteristically... read more , gout Gout Gout is a disorder caused by hyperuricemia (serum urate > 6.8 mg/dL [> 0.4 mmol/L]) that results in the precipitation of monosodium urate crystals in and around joints, most often causing recurrent... read more ). On occasion, small calcaneal erosions may result from severe inflammation.
Symptoms and signs caused by trauma or gout develop rapidly; those caused by another systemic disorder develop gradually. Pain, swelling, and warmth around the heel are common, as are difficulty walking and wearing shoes. The bursa is tender. Initially, the swelling is localized anterior to the Achilles tendon but in time extends medially and laterally.
Fracture of the posterolateral talar tubercle usually causes tenderness anterior to the insertion of the Achilles tendon. Bursitis is often differentiated from the fracture by the localization of warmth and swelling contiguous to the tendon and pain localized primarily in the soft tissue. Also, using the thumb and index finger, compressing side-to-side anterior to the Achilles tendon causes pain.
X-rays are taken to rule out fracture and to reveal erosive calcaneal changes characteristic of chronic rheumatoid arthritis or other rheumatic disorders.
A corticosteroid/anesthetic injection, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and warm or cold compresses may be effective. Care must be taken to inject only the bursal sac and not the tendon proper because tendon injection may lead to tendon weakening or tearing, predisposing to subsequent rupture.