Nail-patella syndrome is an autosomal dominant Autosomal Dominant Genetic disorders determined by a single gene (Mendelian disorders) are easiest to analyze and the most well understood. If expression of a trait requires only one copy of a gene (one allele)... read more disorder caused by a mutation in the gene for the transcription factor LMX1B, which plays an important role in vertebrate limb and kidney development.
Symptoms and Signs of Nail-Patella Syndrome
There is bilateral hypoplasia or absence of the patella, subluxation of the radial head at the elbows, and bilateral accessory iliac horns.
Fingernails and toenails are absent or hypoplastic, with pitting and ridges.
Renal dysfunction occurs in up to 50% of patients due to focal segmental glomerular deposits of IgM and C3. Proteinuria, hypertension, and hematuria are the most common manifestations, but about 30% of patients with renal involvement slowly progress to renal failure.
Diagnosis of Nail-Patella Syndrome
Diagnosis of nail-patella syndrome is suggested clinically; sometimes renal biopsy and bone x-rays are indicated, which are diagnostic.
LMX1B mutation analysis is possible, including for prenatal diagnosis, but the type of mutation does not usually predict clinical severity. LMXB1 mutations affecting only the kidney have been described.
Treatment of Nail-Patella Syndrome
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for proteinuria and hypertension
Sometimes kidney transplantation
There is no specific treatment for nail-patella syndrome, but proteinuria and hypertension can be treated with ACE inhibitors.
When indicated, kidney transplantation Kidney Transplantation Kidney transplantation is the most common type of solid organ transplantation. (See also Overview of Transplantation.) The primary indication for kidney transplantation is End-stage renal failure... read more has been successful without evidence of recurrent disease in the graft.