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Contraception and Adolescent Pregnancy


Sharon Levy

, MD, MPH, Harvard Medical School

Reviewed/Revised Jul 2022 | Modified Sep 2022

Many adolescents engage in sexual activity but may not be fully informed about contraception, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections, including hepatitis C and HIV infection. Impulsivity, lack of planning, and concurrent drug and alcohol use decrease the likelihood that adolescents will use birth control and barrier protection.

Any of the adult contraceptive methods Overview of Contraception The decision to begin, prevent, or interrupt a pregnancy may be influenced by many factors, including personal, medical, family, and socioeconomic factors. Contraception can be used by people... read more may be used by adolescents. The most common problem is adherence (eg, forgetting to take daily oral contraceptives or stopping them entirely—often without substituting another form of birth control). Although male condoms are the most frequently used form of contraception, there are still perceptions that may inhibit consistent use (eg, that condom use decreases pleasure and interferes with “romantic love”). Some adolescents also are shy about asking partners to use condoms during sex.

Pregnancy can be a source of significant emotional stress for adolescents. Pregnant adolescents and their partners tend to drop out of school or job training, thus worsening their economic status, lowering their self-esteem, and straining personal relationships. Adolescents are less likely than adults to get prenatal care, resulting in poorer pregnancy outcomes (eg, higher rates of prematurity). Adolescents, particularly the very young and those who are not receiving prenatal care, are more likely than women in their 20s to have medical problems during pregnancy, such as anemia and preeclampsia. Infants of young mothers (especially mothers < 15 years of age) are more likely to be born prematurely and to have a low birth weight. However, with proper prenatal care, older adolescents have no higher risk of pregnancy problems than adults from similar backgrounds.

Having an abortion Induced Abortion In the United States, about half of pregnancies are unintended. About 40% of unintended pregnancies end in induced abortion; 90% of procedures are done during the 1st trimester. In the United... read more does not remove the psychosocial problems of an unwanted pregnancy—either for the adolescent girl or her partner. Emotional crises may occur when pregnancy is diagnosed, when the decision to have an abortion is made, immediately after the abortion, when the infant would have been born, and when the anniversaries of that date occur. Family counseling and education about contraceptive methods, for both the girl and her partner, can be very helpful.

Parents may have different reactions when their daughter says she is pregnant or their son says he has impregnated someone. Some parents are pleased and others are distressed, so emotions may range from excitement to apathy, disappointment, or even anger. It is important for parents to express their support and willingness to help the adolescent sort through his or her choices. Parents and adolescents need to communicate openly about abortion, adoption, and parenthood—all tough options for the adolescent to struggle with alone. However, before revealing a pregnancy to parents, practitioners should screen for the possibility of abuse of the pregnant adolescent by a parent, because revealing the pregnancy may put vulnerable adolescents at greater risk.

NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: View Consumer Version
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