Immunology is the study of an organism's immune (defense) system. Because allergic disorders are mediated by the immune system, some allergists/immunologists concentrate on management of allergic diseases. Other allergists/immunologists manage immune system disorders such as inherited immunodeficiency diseases and autoimmune diseases.
Immunology; Allergic Disorders
- Overview of the Immune System
- Components of the Immune System
- Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) System
- Complement System
- Overview of Allergy and Atopy
- Allergic Rhinitis
- Hereditary and Acquired Angioedema
- Autoimmune Disorders
- Drug Hypersensitivity
- Food Allergy
- Overview of Immunodeficiency Disorders
- Approach to the Patient With Suspected Immunodeficiency
- Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome
- Chronic Granulomatous Disease
- Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis
- Common Variable Immunodeficiency
- DiGeorge Syndrome
- Hyper-IgE Syndrome
- Hyper-IgM Syndrome
- Selective IgA Deficiency
- Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
- Selective Antibody Deficiency With Normal Immunoglobulins
- Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
- Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of Infancy
- Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
- X-linked Agammaglobulinemia
- X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome
- ZAP-70 Deficiency
- Overview of Transplantation
- Heart Transplantation
- Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
- Kidney Transplantation
- Liver Transplantation
- Lung Transplantation
- Pancreas Transplantation
- Small-Bowel Transplantation
- Tissue Transplantation
Immunology; Allergic Disorders Sections (A-Z)
Allergic, Autoimmune, and Other Hypersensitivity Disorders
Allergic and other hypersensitivity disorders are inappropriate or exaggerated immune reactions. Inappropriate immune reactions include those that are misdirected against intrinsic body components, leading to autoimmune disorders (see Autoimmune Disorders). Allergic and atopic disorders involve exaggerated immune responses to foreign antigens.
Biology of the Immune System
The immune system distinguishes self from nonself and eliminates potentially harmful nonself molecules and cells from the body. The immune system also has the capacity to recognize and destroy abnormal cells that derive from host tissues. Any molecule capable of being recognized by the immune system is considered an antigen (Ag).
Immunodeficiency disorders are associated with or predispose affected patients to various complications, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and lymphomas and other cancers. Primary immunodeficiencies are hereditary; secondary immunodeficiencies are acquired. Secondary immunodeficiencies are much more common.
Transplants may be the patient’s own tissue (autografts; eg, bone, bone marrow, and skin grafts), genetically identical (syngeneic [between monozygotic twins]), donor tissue (isografts), genetically dissimilar donor tissue (allografts, or homografts), or, rarely, grafts from a different species (xenografts, or heterografts). Transplanted tissue may be cells (as for hematopoietic stem cell [HSC], lymphocyte, and pancreatic islet cell transplants), parts or segments of an organ (as for hepatic or pulmonary lobar transplants and skin grafts), or entire organs (as for heart or kidney transplants).
Also of Interest
The presence of which of the following symptoms suggests that a patient's angioedema is related to mast cell-derived mediators and is not bradykinin-mediated?