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Trench Fever

(Wolhynia, Shin Bone, or Quintan Fever)

by Larry M. Bush, MD, Maria T. Perez, MD

Trench fever is a louse-borne disease caused by Bartonella quintana and observed originally in military populations during World Wars I and II. Symptoms are an acute, recurring febrile illness, occasionally with a rash. Diagnosis is by blood culture. Treatment is with a macrolide or doxycycline.

Humans are the only reservoir of this Bartonella infection (see also Overview of Bartonella Infections). B. quintana is transmitted to humans when feces from infected lice are rubbed into abraded skin or the conjunctiva. Trench fever is endemic in Mexico, Tunisia, Eritrea, Poland, and the former Soviet Union and is reappearing in the homeless population in the US.

After a 14- to 30-day incubation period, onset is sudden, with fever, weakness, dizziness, headache (with pain behind the eyes), conjunctival injection, and severe back and leg pains. Fever may reach 40.5° C and persist for 5 to 6 days. In about half the cases, fever recurs 1 to 8 times at 5- to 6-day intervals. A transient macular or papular rash and, occasionally, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly occur. Relapses are common and have occurred up to 10 yr after the initial attack.

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