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Rabies is a viral encephalitis transmitted by the saliva of infected bats and certain other infected mammals. Symptoms include depression and fever, followed by agitation, excessive salivation, and hydrophobia. Diagnosis is by serologic tests or biopsy. Vaccination is indicated for people at high risk of exposure. Postexposure prophylaxis involves wound care and passive and active immunoprophylaxis and, if promptly and meticulously executed, almost always prevents human rabies. Otherwise, the disorder is almost universally fatal. Treatment is supportive.
Rabies causes > 55,000 human deaths worldwide annually, mostly in Latin America, Africa, and Asia, where canine rabies is endemic. In the US, vaccination of domestic animals has reduced rabies cases in people to < 3/yr, mostly transmitted by infected bats. Infected raccoons, skunks, and foxes can also transmit rabies.
Rabid animals transmit the infection through their saliva, usually by biting. Rarely, the virus can enter through a skin abrasion or across mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, or mouth. The virus travels from the site of entry via peripheral nerves to the spinal cord (or to the brain stem when the face is bitten), then to the brain. It then spreads from the CNS via peripheral nerves to other parts of the body. Involvement of the salivary glands and oral mucosa is responsible for transmissibility.
Drug NameSelect Trade
midazolamNo US brand name
* This is a professional Version *