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Acute Pancreatitis


Michael Bartel

, MD, PhD, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University

Reviewed/Revised Mar 2022 | Modified Sep 2022
Topic Resources

Acute pancreatitis is sudden inflammation of the pancreas that may be mild or life threatening but usually subsides.

  • Gallstones and alcohol abuse are the main causes of acute pancreatitis.

  • Severe abdominal pain is the predominant symptom.

  • Blood tests and imaging tests, such as computed tomography, help the doctor make the diagnosis.

  • Whether mild, moderate, or severe, acute pancreatitis usually requires hospitalization.

The pancreas Pancreas The pancreas is an organ that contains two types of glandular tissue: Pancreatic acini Islets of Langerhans (See also Overview of the Digestive System.) The acini produce digestive enzymes.... read more Pancreas is an organ in the upper abdomen that produces digestive fluids and the hormone insulin. The part of the pancreas that produces hormones, especially insulin, tends not to be affected by acute pancreatitis.

The Pancreas

In acute pancreatitis, inflammation develops quickly and subsides within a few days but can last for to a few weeks. In chronic pancreatitis Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is long-standing inflammation of the pancreas that results in irreversible deterioration of the structure and function of the pancreas. Alcohol use and cigarette smoking... read more , the pancreas is persistently inflamed, which causes permanent damage.

Locating the Pancreas

Locating the Pancreas

Causes of Acute Pancreatitis

The most common causes (more than 70% of cases) of acute pancreatitis are


Gallstones cause about 40% of cases of acute pancreatitis. Gallstones are collections of solid material in the gallbladder Gallbladder and Biliary Tract The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped, muscular storage sac that holds bile and is interconnected to the liver by ducts known as the biliary tract. (See also Overview of the Liver and Gallbladder... read more Gallbladder and Biliary Tract . These stones sometimes pass into and block the duct that the gallbladder shares with the pancreas (called the common bile duct).

Normally, the pancreas secretes pancreatic fluid through the pancreatic duct into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). This pancreatic fluid contains digestive enzymes that help digest food. If a gallstone becomes stuck in the sphincter of Oddi (the opening where the pancreatic duct empties into the duodenum), pancreatic fluid stops flowing. Usually, the blockage is temporary and causes limited damage, which is soon repaired. But if the blockage remains, the enzymes collect in the pancreas and begin to digest the cells of the pancreas, causing severe inflammation.


Alcohol use causes about 30% of cases of acute pancreatitis. The risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing amounts of alcohol (4 to 7 drinks per day in men and 3 or more drinks per day in women). However, less than 10% of people who frequently consume alcohol develop acute pancreatitis, which suggests additional triggers or other factors are needed for pancreatitis to develop.

How alcohol causes pancreatitis is not fully understood. One theory is that alcohol is converted into toxic chemicals in the pancreas that cause damage. Another theory is that alcohol may cause the small ductules in the pancreas that drain into the pancreatic duct to clog, eventually causing acute pancreatitis.

Other causes

Many drugs can irritate the pancreas. Usually, the inflammation resolves when the drugs are stopped.

Viruses can cause pancreatitis, which is usually short-lived.

Some Causes of Acute Pancreatitis

Symptoms of Acute Pancreatitis

Almost everyone with acute pancreatitis has severe abdominal pain in the upper abdomen. The pain penetrates to the back in about 50% of people. When acute pancreatitis is caused by gallstones, the pain usually starts suddenly and reaches its maximum intensity in minutes. When pancreatitis is caused by alcohol, pain typically develops over a few days. Whatever the cause, the pain then remains steady and severe, has a penetrating quality, and may persist for days.

Coughing, vigorous movement, and deep breathing may worsen the pain. Sitting upright and leaning forward may provide some relief. Most people feel nauseated and have to vomit, sometimes to the point of dry heaves (retching without producing any vomit). Often, even large doses of an injected opioid analgesic Opioid Pain Relievers Pain relievers (analgesics) are the main drugs used to treat pain. Doctors choose a pain reliever based on the type and duration of pain and on the drug's likely benefits and risks. Most pain... read more do not relieve pain completely.

In acute pancreatitis, a person may develop some swelling in the upper abdomen. This swelling may occur because the intestinal contents have stopped moving, causing the intestines to swell (a condition called ileus Ileus Ileus is a temporary lack of the normal muscle contractions of the intestines. Abdominal surgery and medications that interfere with the intestine’s movements are common causes. Bloating, vomiting... read more ).

Some people, especially those who develop acute pancreatitis because of alcohol use, may never develop any symptoms other than moderate to severe pain. Other people feel terrible. They look sick and are sweaty and have a fast pulse (100 to 140 beats a minute) and shallow, rapid breathing. Rapid breathing may also occur if people have inflammation of the lungs, areas of collapsed lung tissue (atelectasis Atelectasis Atelectasis is a condition in which all or part of a lung becomes airless and collapses. Blockage of the bronchial tubes is a common cause of atelectasis. Shortness of breath can develop if... read more ), or accumulation of fluid in the chest cavity (pleural effusion Pleural Effusion Pleural effusion is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (the area between the two layers of the thin membrane that covers the lungs). Fluid can accumulate in the pleural... read more Pleural Effusion ). These conditions may decrease the amount of lung tissue available to transfer oxygen from the air to the blood and can lower the oxygen levels in the blood.

At first, body temperature may be normal, but it may increase in a few hours to between 100° F and 101° F (37.7° C and 38.3° C). Blood pressure is usually low and tends to fall when the person stands, causing lightheadedness.

Occasionally, the whites of the eyes (sclera) become yellowish.

Complications of acute pancreatitis

The main complications of acute pancreatitis are

  • Pancreatic pseudocyst

  • Necrotizing pancreatitis

  • Infection of the pancreas

  • Organ failure

A pancreatic pseudocyst is a collection of fluid containing pancreatic enzymes that forms in and around the pancreas. The pseudocyst goes away spontaneously in some people. In other people, the pseudocyst does not go away and can become infected.

Necrotizing pancreatitis may occur in severe acute pancreatitis. In necrotizing pancreatitis, parts of the pancreas may die and body fluid may escape into the abdominal cavity, which decreases blood volume and results in a large drop in blood pressure, possibly causing shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition in which blood flow to the organs is low, decreasing delivery of oxygen and thus causing organ damage and sometimes death. Blood pressure is usually low... read more and organ failure. Severe acute pancreatitis can be life threatening.

Infection of an inflamed pancreas is a risk, particularly in people who have necrotizing pancreatitis. Sometimes, a doctor suspects an infection when a person's condition worsens and a fever develops, especially if this happens after the person's first symptoms started to subside.

Organ failure can occur in acute pancreatitis because damage to the pancreas may permit activated enzymes and toxins such as cytokines Cytokines One of the body's lines of defense (immune system) involves white blood cells (leukocytes) that travel through the bloodstream and into tissues, searching for and attacking microorganisms and... read more to enter the bloodstream and cause low blood pressure and damage to other organs such as the lungs and kidneys. This damage can cause some people who have acute pancreatitis to develop failure of other organs, including the kidneys, lungs, or heart, and this failure can lead to death.

Diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis

  • Blood tests

  • Imaging tests

Characteristic abdominal pain leads a doctor to suspect acute pancreatitis, especially in a person who has gallbladder disease or who drinks a lot of alcohol. During the examination, a doctor often notes that the abdomen is tender and the abdominal wall muscles occasionally are rigid. When listening to the abdomen with a stethoscope, a doctor may hear few or no bowel (intestinal) sounds.

Blood tests

No single blood test proves the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, but certain tests suggest it. Blood levels of two enzymes produced by the pancreas—amylase and lipase—usually increase on the first day of the illness but return to normal in 3 to 7 days. If the person has had other flare-ups (bouts or attacks) of pancreatitis, however, the levels of these enzymes may not increase significantly, because so much of the pancreas may have been destroyed that too few cells are left to release the enzymes.

Imaging tests

X-rays of the abdomen may show dilated loops of intestine or, rarely, one or more gallstones. Chest x-rays may reveal areas of collapsed lung tissue or an accumulation of fluid in the chest cavity.

An ultrasound Ultrasound Scanning (Ultrasonography) of the Abdomen Ultrasound scanning uses sound waves to produce pictures of internal organs (see also Ultrasonography). An ultrasound scan can show the size and shape of many organs, such as the liver and pancreas... read more Ultrasound Scanning (Ultrasonography) of the Abdomen of the abdomen may show gallstones in the gallbladder or sometimes in the common bile duct and also may detect swelling of the pancreas. This test is done in all people who are having a first attack of acute pancreatitis to make sure there are no gallstones present that might cause further pancreatitis.

A computed tomography Computed Tomography (CT) Computed tomography (CT) is a type of medical imaging that combines a series of x-rays to create cross-sectional, detailed images of internal structures. In computed tomography (CT), which used... read more Computed Tomography (CT) (CT) scan is particularly useful in detecting inflammation of the pancreas and is used in people with severe acute pancreatitis. For this scan, people are also injected with a contrast agent. The agent is a substance that can be seen on x-rays. Because the images are so clear, a CT scan helps a doctor make a precise diagnosis and identify complications of pancreatitis.

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography Magnetic Resonance Imaging Imaging tests of the liver, gallbladder, and biliary tract include ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography... read more (MRCP), a special magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test, may also be done to show the pancreatic duct and bile duct and to determine if there is any dilation, blockage, or narrowing of the ducts.

Understanding Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

In endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), a radiopaque dye is introduced through an endoscope (a flexible viewing tube), which is inserted into the mouth and through the stomach into the duodenum (the first segment of the small intestine). The radiopaque dye is injected into the biliary tract just past the sphincter of Oddi. The dye then flows back up the biliary tract and often shows the pancreatic ducts.

Surgical instruments can also be used with the endoscope, allowing a doctor to remove a stone in a bile duct or insert a tube (stent) to bypass a bile duct blocked by scarring or cancer.

Understanding Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Other tests

If doctors suspect that there is an infection, they may withdraw a sample of infected material from the pancreas by inserting a needle through the skin into the fluid collection.

Urine may also be tested for an enzyme called trypsinogen. This enzyme is secreted by the pancreas. If the level of this enzyme is elevated in the urine, the person may have pancreatitis.

Prognosis for Acute Pancreatitis

In acute pancreatitis, a CT scan helps determine the outlook or prognosis. If the scan indicates that the pancreas is only mildly swollen, the prognosis is excellent. If the scan shows large areas of destroyed pancreas, the prognosis is usually poor.

A number of scoring systems help doctors predict the severity of acute pancreatitis, which can help them better manage the person. These scoring systems may include information such as age, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory tests, and CT scan results.

When acute pancreatitis is mild, the death rate is about 5% or less. However, in pancreatitis with severe damage, or when the inflammation is not confined to the pancreas, the death rate can be much higher. Death during the first several days of acute pancreatitis is usually caused by failure of the heart, lungs, or kidneys. Death after the first week is usually caused by pancreatic infection or by a pseudocyst that bleeds or ruptures.

Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis

  • Fluids by vein

  • Pain relief

  • Measures to support nutrition

  • Sometimes endoscopy or surgery

Treatment of mild acute pancreatitis usually involves short-term hospitalization where fluids are given by vein (intravenously), analgesics are given for pain relief, and the person fasts to try to rest the pancreas. A low-fat, soft diet is usually started soon after admission if there is no nausea, vomiting, or severe pain.

People with moderately severe acute pancreatitis need to be hospitalized for a longer period of time and are given intravenous fluids. As long as people can tolerate eating and drinking, they can continue to do so while they are ill. If people are unable to eat, they are given food through a tube that is inserted through the nose and into the stomach or intestine (tube feeding Tube Feeding Tube feeding may be used to feed people whose digestive tract is functioning normally but who cannot eat enough to meet their nutritional needs. Such people include those with the following... read more Tube Feeding or enteral tube nutrition). Symptoms such as pain and nausea are controlled with drugs given intravenously. Doctors may give antibiotics if these people show any signs of infection.

People with severe acute pancreatitis are admitted to an intensive care unit Types of units People who need specific types of care while hospitalized may be put in special care units. Intensive care units (ICUs) are for people who are seriously ill. These people include those who have... read more , where vital signs (pulse, blood pressure, and rate of breathing) and urine production can be monitored continuously. Blood samples are repeatedly drawn to monitor various components of the blood, including hematocrit, sugar (glucose) levels, electrolyte levels, white blood cell count, and blood urea nitrogen levels. A tube may be inserted through the nose and into the stomach (nasogastric tube) to remove fluid and air, particularly if nausea and vomiting persist and ileus Ileus Ileus is a temporary lack of the normal muscle contractions of the intestines. Abdominal surgery and medications that interfere with the intestine’s movements are common causes. Bloating, vomiting... read more is present.

If possible, people with severe acute pancreatitis are given nutrition via tube feeding. If tube feeding is not possible, people are given nutrition through an intravenous catheter that has been inserted into a large vein (intravenous feeding Intravenous Feeding Intravenous feeding is used when the digestive tract cannot adequately absorb nutrients, as occurs in severe malabsorption disorders. It is also used when the digestive tract must be temporarily... read more ).

For people with a drop in blood pressure or who are in shock, blood volume is carefully maintained with intravenous fluids and drugs and heart function is closely monitored. Some people need supplemental oxygen, and the most seriously ill require a ventilator (a machine that helps air get in and out of the lungs).

When acute pancreatitis results from gallstones, treatment depends on the severity. Although more than 80% of people with gallstone pancreatitis pass the stone spontaneously, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with stone removal is usually needed for people who do not improve because they have a stone they cannot pass. While people are still in the hospital, doctors typically remove the gallbladder.

Pseudocysts that have rapidly grown larger or are causing pain or other symptoms are usually drained. Depending on its location and other factors, a pseudocyst can be drained by placing a drainage tube (catheter) into the pseudocyst. The catheter can be placed using an endoscope or by inserting the catheter directly through the skin into the pseudocyst. The catheter allows the pseudocyst to drain for several weeks. Surgery is rarely needed to drain a pseudocyst.

An infection or necrotizing pancreatitis is treated with antibiotics, and may require removal of infected and dead tissue endoscopically or surgically.

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Generic Name Select Brand Names
Aluvea , BP-50% Urea , BP-K50, Carmol, CEM-Urea, Cerovel, DermacinRx Urea, Epimide-50, Gord Urea, Gordons Urea, Hydro 35 , Hydro 40, Kerafoam, Kerafoam 42, Keralac, Keralac Nailstik, Keratol, Keratol Plus, Kerol, Kerol AD, Kerol ZX, Latrix, Mectalyte, Nutraplus, RE Urea 40, RE Urea 50 , Rea Lo, Remeven, RE-U40, RYNODERM , U40, U-Kera, Ultra Mide 25, Ultralytic-2, Umecta, Umecta Nail Film, URALISS, Uramaxin , Uramaxin GT, Urea, Ureacin-10, Ureacin-20, Urealac , Ureaphil, Uredeb, URE-K , Uremez-40, Ure-Na, Uresol, Utopic, Vanamide, Xurea, X-VIATE
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