Diving is a relatively safe recreational activity for healthy people who have been appropriately trained and educated. Diving safety courses offered by national diving organizations are widely available and help prevent or lessen the risk of diving-related injuries Overview of Diving Injuries People who engage in deep-sea or scuba diving are at risk of a number of injuries, most of which are caused by changes in pressure. These disorders also can affect people who work in underwater... read more .
Divers should take precautions that minimize the risk of barotrauma Barotrauma Barotrauma is tissue injury caused by a change in pressure, which compresses or expands gas contained in various body structures. The lungs, gastrointestinal tract, part of the face covered... read more and decompression sickness Decompression Sickness Decompression sickness is a disorder in which nitrogen dissolved in the blood and tissues by high pressure forms bubbles as pressure decreases. Symptoms can include fatigue and pain in muscles... read more . To decrease their risk, divers should
Equalize the pressure in various air spaces, including the face mask (by blowing out air from the nose into the mask) and the middle ear (for example, by yawning or swallowing)
Avoid holding their breath and breathe normally during ascent, which should be no faster than 0.5 feet/second (0.15 meters/second), a rate that allows divers to gradually expel excess nitrogen and empty air-filled spaces (for example, the lungs and sinuses)
Make all required stops according to the depth and time of the dive required by the dive tables or computer
Include a 3- to 5-minute safety stop at 15 feet (4.6 meters)
Not fly for 15 to 24 hours after diving
To decrease other diving risks, divers should be aware of and avoid certain diving conditions, for example
Currents requiring excessive effort
After use of illicit drugs, sedatives, and alcohol
Cold temperatures are a particular hazard because hypothermia can develop rapidly and compromise the diver’s judgment and dexterity. Hypothermia can also cause potentially fatal abnormal heart rhythms in susceptible people. Diving alone is not recommended.
Illicit drugs, sedatives, and alcohol in any amount may have unpredictable or unanticipated effects at depth and should be strictly avoided. Nonsedating prescription medications rarely interfere with recreational diving.
Conditions That Can Preclude Diving
Because diving can involve heavy exertion, divers should have reasonably good aerobic capacity (capacity for vigorous exercise) and they should not be limited by heart or lung disorders. Disorders that can impair consciousness, alertness, or judgment, such as seizures Seizure Disorders In seizure disorders, the brain's electrical activity is periodically disturbed, resulting in some degree of temporary brain dysfunction. Many people have unusual sensations just before a seizure... read more and diabetes Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism that is treated with insulin (because it can cause low blood sugar levels [ hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is abnormally low levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Hypoglycemia is most often caused by medications taken to control diabetes. Much less common causes of hypoglycemia include... read more ]) generally preclude diving. Special programs for divers with diabetes have been established. If there is any question, a doctor should be consulted. Individuals who have experienced spontaneous collapse of the lung (pneumothorax Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is the presence of air between the two layers of pleura (thin, transparent, two-layered membrane that covers the lungs and also lines the inside of the chest wall), resulting... read more ) should not dive.
Although traditional guidelines have suggested that children younger than 10 years should not dive, programs that begin teaching children at age 8 have been successful. Most diving instructors are familiar with guidelines for teaching children to dive. Prospective divers should be evaluated for fitness and for factors that can increase the risk of mishaps and injury during diving by doctors who are familiar with diving.
Professional divers may undergo additional medical tests, such as those for heart and lung function, exercise stress, hearing, and vision, as well as bone x-rays. In addition, adequate diver training is absolutely necessary.
The following English-language resources may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of these resources.
Divers Alert Network: 24-hour emergency hotline, 919-684-9111
Duke Dive Medicine: 24-hour emergency consultation with a doctor, 919-684-8111