Bruising or bleeding after an injury is normal.
However, some people have blood clotting Blood Clotting Process disorders that cause them to bruise or bleed too easily, such as after very minor injuries or even no injury.
Bleeding is most common from the nose, mouth, or digestive tract
Bleeding into your brain is less common but very dangerous
Common causes of excessive bleeding include liver disease Overview of Liver Disease Liver disease can manifest in many different ways. Characteristic manifestations include Jaundice (a yellowish discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes) Cholestasis (reduction or stoppage... read more , low platelet count Overview of Low Platelet Count (Thrombocytopenia) Platelets are small cells that circulate in your bloodstream and help your blood clot. They're made in your bone marrow like other blood cells. Platelets are also called thrombocytes. Your blood... read more , and certain medicines
Less often, you inherited a bleeding problem from your parents
Doctors do blood tests to find the cause of excessive bleeding
What causes easy bruising and bleeding?
A blood clot is a clump of material that your body makes to plug up a bleeding blood vessel. Blood clots are made up of things in your bloodstream, including:
Platelets (cell-like blood particles)
Special proteins called clotting factors
Problems with either platelets or clotting factors can keep your blood from clotting properly. The result is excessive bleeding or bruising.
A platelet problem can involve:
Too few platelets
Too many platelets
Platelets that don’t work correctly
Use of anti-platelet medicines, such as aspirin or NSAIDs (such as ibuprofen)
Certain cancers and severe infections can cause platelet problems.
A clotting factor problem can be caused by:
Taking certain medicines, such as blood thinners
A disorder that uses up your clotting factors, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) When you're injured and bleeding, your blood forms a clot to seal damaged blood vessels and stop the bleeding. Blood has special clotting substances and platelets (very small blood cells) in... read more
You may bruise easily just because your blood vessels are more fragile than usual (a condition called purpura simplex Purpura Simplex Purpura simplex is increased bruising that is due to fragile blood vessels. Purpura simplex is extremely common. The cause is not known. Some doctors think it may be a feature of many disorders... read more ). This is common and is rarely a cause for concern if you have no other signs of excess bleeding.
What are the symptoms of a bleeding disorder?
Symptoms of a bleeding disorder include:
Continued bleeding after minor cuts, blood tests, minor surgery or dental work, or tooth brushing or flossing
Unexplained marks on your skin, including red or purple dots, bruises, and small blood vessels that are visible in your skin
Extra or long bleeding during your period if you're a woman
When should I see a doctor?
Go to a doctor right away if you bleed or bruise easily and have any of these warning signs:
Can't stop bleeding
Are vomiting up blood or old blood (dark particles that look like coffee grounds)
Are pooping blood or black, tar-like material
Have symptoms of serious blood loss, such as sweating, weakness, or feeling faint, dizzy, sick to your stomach, or overly thirsty
Are pregnant or recently gave birth
Have signs of infection, such as fever, chills, diarrhea, feeling ill all over
Have brain symptoms, such as headache and confusion
If you don’t have warning signs but notice that you bleed or bruise easily, you should call your doctor.
What will happen at my doctor’s visit?
Doctors ask questions about your symptoms and medical history and do a physical exam. You'll usually also need:
How do doctors treat easy bruising and bleeding?
Doctors treat the specific cause of your bruising or bleeding, such as:
Stopping medicines that cause bleeding
Having you take vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency
Treating a cancer or infection
Sometimes doctors will give you platelets or clotting factors in a vein.
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