Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

honeypot link

Introduction to the Approach to the Dental Patient


Rosalyn Sulyanto

, DMD, MS, Harvard School of Dental Medicine and Boston Children's Hospital

Last full review/revision Nov 2018| Content last modified Nov 2018
Click here for Patient Education

A physician should always examine the mouth and be able to recognize major oral disorders, particularly possible oral cancers. However, consultation with a dentist is needed to evaluate patients with nonmalignant changes as well as tooth problems. Likewise, patients with xerostomia or unexplained swelling or pain in the mouth, face, or neck require a dental consultation.

Children with abnormal facies (who also may have dental malformations requiring correction) should be evaluated by a dentist.

In fever of unknown origin (FUO) or a systemic infection of unknown cause, a dental disorder should be considered.

A dental consultation is necessary before head and neck radiation therapy and is advisable before chemotherapy.

Common dental disorders, dental emergencies, and other dental and oral symptoms, including toothache, are discussed elsewhere in The Manual. This chapter focuses on

Geriatrics Essentials

Resting salivary secretion rarely diminishes significantly solely due to aging. Xerostomia or hyposalivation in the elderly is almost always a side effect of drugs, although meal-stimulated salivary flow is usually adequate.

The flattened cusps of worn teeth and weakness of the masticatory muscles may make chewing tiresome, impairing food intake.

Loss of bone mass in the jaws (particularly the alveolar portion), dryness of the mouth, thinning of the oral mucosa, and impaired coordination of lip, cheek, and tongue movements may make denture retention difficult.

The taste buds become less sensitive, so the elderly may add abundant seasonings, particularly salt (which is harmful for some), or they may desire very hot foods for more taste, sometimes burning the often atrophic oral mucosa.

Gingival recession and xerostomia contribute to development of root caries.

Despite these changes, improved dental hygiene has greatly decreased the prevalence of tooth loss, and most older people can expect to retain their teeth.

Poor oral health contributes to poor nutritional intake, which impairs general health. Dental disease (particularly periodontitis) is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of coronary artery disease. Edentulous patients cannot have periodontitis because they do not have a periodontium, although periodontitis may have resulted in their tooth loss. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with periodontitis can involve anaerobic organisms and has a high mortality rate. Severe bacteremias secondary to acute or chronic dental infection may contribute to brain abscesses, cavernous sinus thrombosis, endocarditis, prosthetic joint infections, and unexplained fevers.

Click here for Patient Education
NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Consumer Version
Professionals also read

Test your knowledge

Tongue Discoloration and Other Changes
A 12-year-old girl is brought to the office by her grandmother because she has had pain in her mouth for the past week. The patient appears to be drooling. Physical examination shows a smooth red tongue. Tenderness is noted on palpation of the oral mucosa. Based on these findings, this patient most likely has a deficiency of which of the following? 
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID

Also of Interest