(See also Overview of Vascular Disorders of the Liver.)
Common causes of ischemic cholangiopathy include
The diagnosis is suspected when cholestasis is evident in patients at risk, particularly after liver transplantation. Ultrasonography is the first-line diagnostic imaging test for cholestasis, but most patients require magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, ERCP, or both to rule out other causes such as cholelithiasis or cholangiocarcinoma (see Imaging Tests of the Liver and Gallbladder).
Treatment is directed at the cause. After liver transplantation, such treatment includes antirejection therapy and possible retransplantation. Biliary strictures warrant endoscopic balloon dilation and stenting.