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Evaluation of the Hip

By

Alexandra Villa-Forte

, MD, MPH, Cleveland Clinic

Last full review/revision Feb 2020| Content last modified Feb 2020
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Physical Examination of the Hip

Examination begins with gait evaluation. A limp is common among patients with significant hip arthritis and may be caused by any of the following:

  • Pain

  • Leg shortening

  • Flexion contracture

  • Muscle weakness

  • Knee problems

Loss of internal rotation (an early change in hip osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis (OA) Osteoarthritis is a chronic arthropathy characterized by disruption and potential loss of joint cartilage along with other joint changes, including bone hypertrophy (osteophyte formation). Symptoms... read more Osteoarthritis (OA) or any hip synovitis), flexion, extension, or abduction can usually be demonstrated. Placement of one hand on the patient’s iliac crest detects pelvic movement that might be mistaken for hip movement. Flexion contracture can be identified by attempting leg extension with the opposite hip maximally flexed to stabilize the pelvis. Tenderness over the femoral greater trochanter suggests bursitis (which is extra-articular) rather than an intra-articular disorder. Pain with passive range of motion (assessed by internal and external rotation with the patient supine and the hip and knee flexed to 90°) suggests intra-articular origin. However, patients may have simultaneous intra-articular and extra-articular disorders.

Arthrocentesis of the Hip

Arthrocentesis of the hip is usually done using ultrasound guidance by an orthopedic specialist or an interventional radiologist and is not discussed here.

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Bursitis
Bursae are fluid-filled sac-like cavities that are located where tendons or muscles pass over bony prominences in the body. Bursitis is acute or chronic inflammation of a bursa and can be caused by injury, overuse, inflammatory arthritis, or infection. Which of the following is one of the most common bursae involved when infection is present?
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