Marijuana (Cannabis)

ByGerald F. O’Malley, DO, Grand Strand Regional Medical Center;
Rika O’Malley, MD, Grand Strand Medical Center
Reviewed/Revised Dec 2022
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Marijuana is a euphoriant that can cause sedation or dysphoria in some users. Psychologic dependence can develop with chronic use, but very little physical dependence is clinically apparent. Withdrawal is uncomfortable but requires only supportive treatment.

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug; it is typically used episodically without evidence of social or psychologic dysfunction. The active ingredients in the marijuana plant are termed cannabinoids; the main psychoactive plant cannabinoid is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Numerous synthetic cannabinoids also have been illicitly developed for recreational use. Endogenous cannabinoids are substances produced by the body that activate cannabinoid receptors; they appear to play a role in regulation of appetite, pain sensation, and memory.

In the US, marijuana is commonly smoked in cigarettes, made from the flowering tops and leaves of the dried plant, or as hashish, the pressed resin of the plant. The legalization of recreational marijuana in 2010 in certain states in the US created a large market for marijuana products that are ingested, insufflated, vaporized, applied topically in tincture, lotion and spray form.


Delta-9-THC binds at cannabinoid receptors, which are present throughout the brain.

Chronic effects

Any drug that causes euphoria and diminishes anxiety can cause dependence, and marijuana is no exception. High-dose smokers can develop pulmonary symptoms (episodes of acute bronchitis, wheezing, coughing, and increased phlegm), and pulmonary function may be altered, manifested as large airway changes of unknown significance. However, even daily smokers do not develop obstructive airway disease.

Recent data suggest that heavy marijuana use is associated with significant cognitive impairment and anatomic changes in the hippocampus, particularly if marijuana use begins in adolescence.

There is no evidence of increased risk of head and neck or airway cancers, as there is with tobacco. A sense of diminished ambition and energy is often described.

The effect of prenatal marijuana use on neonates is not clear. Decreased fetal weight has been reported, but when all factors (eg, maternal alcohol and tobacco use) are accounted for, the effect on fetal weight appears to lessen. However, because safety has not clearly been proved, marijuana should be avoided by pregnant women and those who are trying to become pregnant. THC is secreted in breast milk. Although harm to breastfed infants has not been shown, breastfeeding mothers, like pregnant women, should avoid using marijuana.

Symptoms and Signs of Marijuana Intoxication

Marijuana intoxication and withdrawal are not life threatening.

Acute effects

Within minutes, smoking marijuana produces a dreamy state of consciousness in which ideas seem disconnected, unanticipated, and free-flowing. Time, color, and spatial perceptions may be altered. In general, intoxication consists of a feeling of euphoria and relaxation (a high). These effects last 4 to 6 hours after inhalation.

Many of the other reported psychologic effects seem to be related to the setting in which the drug is taken. Anxiety, panic reactions, and paranoia have occurred, particularly in naive users. Marijuana may exacerbate or even precipitate psychotic symptoms in schizophrenics, even those being treated with antipsychotics.

Physical effects are mild in most patients. Tachycardia, conjunctival injection, and dry mouth occur regularly. Concentration, sense of time, fine coordination, depth perception, tracking, and reaction time can be impaired for up to 24 hours—all hazardous in certain situations (eg, driving, operating heavy equipment). Appetite often increases.

Chronic effects

Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a recently described syndrome of cyclic episodes of nausea and vomiting in frequent cannabis users; symptoms usually resolve spontaneously within 48 hours. Hot bathing ameliorates these symptoms and is a clinical clue to the diagnosis.

Frequent marijuana smoking may reduce sperm count, resulting in a possible decrease in fertility (1). Some studies show that women who smoke marijuana have decreased fertility (2).

Several studies have described a possible link between chronic, heavy marijuana use and increased risk of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and abuse of other substances, although a cause-and-effect relationship remains uncertain.


Cessation in frequent, heavy marijuana users can cause a mild withdrawal syndrome; the time of onset of withdrawal symptoms is variable but often begins about 12 hours after the last use. Symptoms consist of insomnia, irritability, depression, nausea, and anorexia; symptoms peak at 2 to 3 days and last up to 7 days.

Symptoms and signs references

  1. 1. Ilnitshky S, Van Uum S: Marijuana fertility. CMAJ/ JMAC 191(23):E638, 2019.

  2. 2. Mumford SL, Flannagan KS, Radoc JG: Cannabis use while trying to conceive: A prospective cohort study evaluating associations with fecundability, live birth and pregnancy loss. Human Reproduction 36(5):1405–1415, 2021.

Diagnosis of Marijuana Intoxication

  • Usually a clinical diagnosis

Diagnosis of marijuana intoxication is usually made clinically. Drug levels are not typically measured. Most routine urine drug screens include marijuana, but they may give false-positive or false-negative results.

Treatment of Marijuana Intoxication

  • Supportive measures

Management of abuse typically consists of behavioral therapy in an outpatient drug treatment program.

More Information

The following English-language resources may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of these resources.

  • Narcotics Anonymous World Services: Helps people combat addiction, regardless of the substance that caused it, through a 12-step program similar to that used by Alcoholics Anonymous.

  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA): US Department of Health agency that leads public health efforts to improve behavioral health and provides resources, including treatment locators, toll-free helplines, practitioner training tools, statistics, and publications on a variety of substance-related topics.

Drugs Mentioned In This Article
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