Several measures help protect people against infection.
Handwashing is an effective way of preventing the spread of infectious microorganisms from one person to another. Handwashing is particularly important for people who handle food or who have frequent physical contact with other people, particularly people who are ill.
Hand sanitizers are liquids or foams that contain at least 60% alcohol, which kills most infectious microorganisms. Because many infectious organisms can be carried on people's hands, using hand sanitizer significantly reduces the chance of spreading infection.
Mask wearing can help reduce the spread of respiratory infections. Many respiratory infections are spread by droplets (droplets vary in size depending on the type of bacteria or virus) in the air that are produced when infected people cough, sneeze, breathe, or talk. Masks should be worn by people with infection to keep them from spreading the infection to others. Masks also may be worn by people to lessen the chance of becoming infected. Different types of masks provide different levels of protection, including (in increasing order of protection): multi-layer cloth masks; multi-layer surgical masks and K95 masks; and N95 masks (see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's [CDC] Types of Masks and Respirators).
People visiting hospital patients who are seriously ill should wash their hands and use hand sanitizer and will likely be asked to put on a gown, mask, and gloves before entering the patient’s room.
Sometimes antibiotics Overview of Antibiotics Antibiotics are drugs used to treat bacterial infections. They are not effective against viral infections and most other infections. Antibiotics either kill bacteria or stop them from reproducing... read more are given to people who do not yet have an infection to prevent them from getting an infection. This preventive measure is called prophylaxis. Many healthy people who undergo certain types of surgery—particularly abdominal surgery and organ transplantation—require prophylactic antibiotics.
Vaccination Overview of Immunization Immunization (vaccination) helps the body defend itself against diseases caused by certain bacteria or viruses. Immunity (the ability of the body to defend itself against diseases caused by... read more is one of the most effective ways to prevent infections. People who are at increased risk of developing infections (especially infants, children, older people, and people with AIDS) should receive all the vaccinations necessary to reduce this risk.
(See also Overview of Infectious Disease Overview of Infectious Disease Microorganisms are tiny living creatures, such as bacteria and viruses. Microorganisms are present everywhere. Despite their overwhelming abundance, relatively few of the thousands of species... read more .)
The following English-language resource may be useful. Please note that THE MANUALS is not responsible for the content of this resource.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Types of Masks and Respirators