Because human teeth are not particularly sharp, most human bites cause a bruise and only a shallow tear (laceration Wounds Cuts or tears in tissue (lacerations), scrapes (abrasions), and puncture wounds can be caused by bites or by other mechanisms. Wounds that are not caused by bites and are clean and relatively... read more ), if any. Exceptions are on fleshy appendages, such as the ears, nose, and penis, which may be severed.
The clenched-fist injury, or fight bite, which occurs on the knuckles of a person who punches another person in the mouth, is likely to become infected Hand Infections Caused By Bites The most common human bite–related infection of the hand is injury to the knuckles of a person who punches another person in the mouth (called a clenched fist injury or fight bite). Animal bites... read more . A clenched-fist cut frequently involves the finger tendon that passes over the knuckle.
Sometimes the biting person transmits diseases, such as hepatitis Overview of Hepatitis Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. (See also Overview of Acute Viral Hepatitis and Overview of Chronic Hepatitis.) Hepatitis is common throughout the world. Hepatitis can be Acute (short-lived) read more . Transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is transmitted... read more (HIV) is extremely unlikely because the concentration of the virus in saliva is lower than that in blood and because substances in saliva inhibit the virus’s activity.
(See also Introduction to Bites and Stings Introduction to Bites and Stings Many creatures, including humans, bite when frightened or provoked. Others include Alligators and crocodiles Iguanas Mites Ticks read more .)
Human bites are painful and usually produce a mark on the skin with the pattern of the teeth. Fight bites typically leave only a small, straight cut over a knuckle. A lacerated finger tendon often results in difficulty moving the finger in one direction. Infected bites become very painful, red, and swollen.
Human bites are cleaned by flooding the wound with sterile salt water (saline) and cleansing it with soap and water.
Severed parts can sometimes be reattached. Severed parts should be wrapped in a damp paper towel or washcloth and sealed in a plastic bag. That closed bag should be placed in a second bag with ice. Severed parts should never be placed directly on ice or submerged in water.
Tears, except those involving the hand and those that have occurred many hours ago, are usually surgically closed.
Most people with human bites that have broken the skin are given antibiotics by mouth to prevent infection. Infected bites are treated with antibiotics and often must be opened surgically to root out foreign objects (for example, a broken tooth) and clean the wound. Sometimes an imaging study such as an x-ray or ultrasonography is also done to locate hidden foreign objects.
If a fight bite becomes infected, hospitalization may be needed for administration of intravenous antibiotics.
If the biting person is known or suspected to have a disease that may be spread by biting, preventive treatment may be necessary.