Merck Manual

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Chemical Burns

By

Damien Wilson Carter

, MD, Tufts University School of Medicine

Medically Reviewed Nov 2022
VIEW PROFESSIONAL VERSION

Chemical burns are caused by caustic substances that contact the skin or eyes or are swallowed.

Caustic substances are sometimes present in household products, including some containing lye (in drain cleaners and paint removers), phenols (in deodorizers, sanitizers, and disinfectants), sodium hypochlorite (in disinfectants and bleaches), sulfuric acid (in toilet bowl cleaners and battery acid), and hydrochloric acid (in swimming pool chemicals and masonry cleaners).

Usually, people accidentally spill or splash the caustic substance on themselves. However, sometimes people swallow the caustic substance (see also Caustic Substances Poisoning Caustic Substances Poisoning Caustic substances are highly acidic or alkaline chemicals that can cause severe burns to the mouth and digestive tract when swallowed. When swallowed, caustic substances can burn all tissues... read more ). Many ingestions of caustic substances are accidental, occurring when young children swallow products that have not been properly secured or kept out of their reach. Caustic substances are sometimes deliberately swallowed by adults attempting suicide Suicidal Behavior and Self-Injury .

Symptoms of Chemical Burns

Chemical burns of the skin usually cause symptoms similar to superficial (first-degree) burns. The area is red, swollen, and painful but does not develop blisters. Sometimes, burns are deeper, with blisters and severe pain. Rarely, a strong acid or alkali will cause a full-thickness (third-degree) burn, that damages the skin all the way through.

Treatment of Chemical Burns

The steps in stopping chemical burns are

  • Remove contaminated clothing.

  • Brush away any dry powders or particles.

  • Rinse the area with large amounts of water.

Because chemicals can continue to inflict damage long after first contacting the skin, rinsing should continue for at least 30 minutes. In rare cases involving certain industrial chemicals (for example, metal sodium), water should not be used because it can actually worsen the burn. In addition, some chemicals have specific treatments that can further reduce skin damage. Further treatment of chemical burns is the same as treatment for thermal burns Treatment Burns are injuries to tissue that result from heat, electricity, radiation, or chemicals. Burns cause varying degrees of pain, blisters, swelling, and skin loss. Small, shallow burns may need... read more Treatment .

In the United States, if more information is needed concerning treatment of a burn caused by a specific chemical, the local Poison Control Center can be contacted at 1-800-222-1222.

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Generic Name Select Brand Names
DAKIN'S Solution, Di-Dak-Sol, H-Chlor, HySept
NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: VIEW PROFESSIONAL VERSION
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