Bile is a fluid that is produced by the liver and aids in digestion. Bile is transported through small tubes (bile ducts) that carry bile through the liver and then from the liver to the gallbladder and to the small intestine. (See also Overview of Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders Overview of Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders The liver produces bile, a greenish yellow, thick, sticky fluid. Bile aids digestion by making cholesterol, fats, and fat-soluble vitamins easier to absorb from the intestine. Bile also helps... read more and figure .)
Before medications to treat HIV infection (antiretroviral therapy) were widely used, AIDS cholangiopathy developed in about one fourth of people with AIDS.
The disorder causes pain in the upper right and upper middle parts of the abdomen. If the infection affects the small intestine, people also have diarrhea. A few people have fever and jaundice Jaundice in Adults In jaundice, the skin and whites of the eyes look yellow. Jaundice occurs when there is too much bilirubin (a yellow pigment) in the blood—a condition called hyperbilirubinemia. (See also Overview... read more (a yellowish discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes).
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or ultrasonography
ERCP Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Imaging tests of the liver, gallbladder, and biliary tract include ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography... read more may be done to confirm the diagnosis because it enables doctors to take a sample of infected tissue for examination under a microscope. Then doctors can identify the organism causing the infection. During ERCP, doctors can also widen (dilate) the narrowed bile ducts and thus relieve symptoms.
For ERCP, a flexible viewing tube (endoscope) with surgical attachments is passed through the mouth, down the esophagus, through the stomach, and into the small intestine (see figure ). A thin catheter is passed through the endoscope, through the ring-shaped muscle between the common bile and pancreatic ducts and small intestine (sphincter of Oddi), and up into the common bile duct. A radiopaque contrast agent, which is visible on x-rays, is then injected through the catheter into the bile ducts, and x-rays are taken to detect any abnormalities.
Alternatively, ultrasonography may be done to help confirm the diagnosis. It is less invasive and very accurate.
Blood tests to determine how well the liver is functioning and whether it is inflamed (liver tests Liver Blood Tests Liver tests are blood tests that represent a noninvasive way to screen for the presence of liver disease (for example, viral hepatitis in donated blood) and to measure the severity and progress... read more ) are usually also done. The results can support the diagnosis.
During endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Imaging tests of the liver, gallbladder, and biliary tract include ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography... read more (ERCP), a surgical instrument is passed through the endoscope and used to cut the sphincter of Oddi—a procedure called endoscopic sphincterotomy. Cutting the sphincter of Oddi allows bile to pass into the small intestine. This procedure helps relieve pain, jaundice, and inflammation. If only one part of a duct is narrowed, a tube may be passed through the endoscope and placed in the affected spot to widen it.
Antimicrobial medications are given to treat the infection.
Antiretroviral medication to treat AIDS can prevent future opportunistic infections.
The following English-language resources may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of these resources.
International Foundation for Gastrointestinal Disorders (IFFGD): A reliable resource that helps people with gastrointestinal disorders manage their health.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK): Comprehensive information on how the digestive system works and links to related topics, such as research and treatment options.