Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are not located inside the Russian Federation

honeypot link
Quick Facts

Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)

(Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy; Acute Idiopathic Polyneuritis)


The Manual's Editorial Staff

Last full review/revision Jul 2020| Content last modified Jul 2020
Click here for the Professional Version
Get the full details
Topic Resources

What is GBS?

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is muscle weakness that happens over a few days or a few weeks.

What causes GBS?

Most people get GBS several days to a few weeks after having:

  • A minor illness such as stomach flu or a cold

  • Surgery

Doctors think that you get GBS when your immune system attacks your nerves so they can’t send messages normally. GBS mainly attacks nerves that control muscle movement and sensation. Rarely, it attacks nerves that control your blood pressure and your heart and other organs.

What are the symptoms of GBS?

Symptoms include:

  • Weakness or pins-and-needles feeling that starts in your legs and moves upward

  • Trouble feeling things (loss of sensation)

  • Sometimes, trouble breathing, chewing, swallowing, or speaking

Weakness caused by GBS usually gets worse over 3 to 4 weeks, then remains the same or starts to get better.

In severe cases, symptoms may include:

  • Blood pressure problems

  • Abnormal heart rhythm

  • Not being able to urinate (pee)

  • Constipation (trouble passing stool)

How can doctors tell if I have GBS?

How do doctors treat GBS?

Doctors will care for you in the hospital because you may develop life-threatening breathing problems very quickly. Treatment should start as soon as possible. It may include:

  • Immune globulin given by vein (medicine that contains helpful antibodies that can block antibodies that are damaging your nerves)

  • Plasma exchange (a process that filters your blood to take out the antibodies attacking your nerves)

If your breathing gets weak, doctors may:

  • Put a tube down your throat into your lungs and attach it to a breathing machine (ventilator)

It may take a long time to recover from GBS. Most people recover within a year, but some people take longer and never completely gain back their muscle strength.

NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version
Click here for the Professional Version
Others also read

Test your knowledge

Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)
Atopic dermatitis, commonly known as eczema, is a chronic condition that causes itchy inflammation of the upper layers of skin. Eczema is especially common in people who have hay fever or asthma, and in people whose family members have these conditions. Eczema is common, particularly in urban areas and developed countries. What percentage of children and adolescents are affected by eczema?  
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID

Also of Interest

Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID