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How To Do Orotracheal Intubation Using Video Laryngoscopy

By

Bradley Chappell

, DO. MHA, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center

Last full review/revision Jan 2020| Content last modified Jan 2020
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Endotracheal (ET) tubes are flexible tubes with a standard flange for attaching an oxygen source at the proximal end and a beveled tip and inflatable balloon cuff at the distal end. Under visualization, using either direct laryngoscopy or one of various types of video laryngoscopy, the ET tube is inserted into the mouth and directed into the trachea (orotracheal intubation). Less commonly, the ET tube is inserted into the nose (nasotracheal intubation).

Endotracheal tubes are the definitive method of upper airway management for most patients with apnea or severe ventilatory failure.

Orotracheal intubation using video laryngoscopy is a useful method of endotracheal intubation because it can provide better visualization of the glottis than direct laryngoscopy.

Indications

  • Hypoxia or hypoventilation requiring assisted ventilation to maintain oxygenation and ventilation

  • Apnea or impending respiratory arrest (initial emergency treatment)

  • Elective anesthesia (selected cases)

  • Need for prolonged mechanical ventilation

  • Situations where bag-valve-mask ventilation is difficult or impossible (eg, in patients with severe facial deformity, thick beard, or other factors that interfere with the face mask seal) or upper airway obstruction due to soft tissues

  • Need to prevent aspiration (eg, in obtunded or comatose patients) or for repeated airway suction

Contraindications

Absolute contraindications

  • There is no medical contraindication to providing ventilatory support to a patient; however, a legal contraindication (do-not-resuscitate order or specific advance directive) may be in force

  • Restricted mouth opening that blocks tube insertion (nasotracheal intubation or a surgical airway would be indicated in this case)

  • Impassable upper airway obstruction (surgical airway would be indicated in this case)

Relative contraindications

Complications

Complications include

  • Dental or oropharyngeal soft tissue trauma during tube insertion

  • Vomiting and aspiration during tube insertion

  • Incorrect tube placement (ie, esophageal intubation)

  • Hypoxia during the intubation attempt

Equipment

Additional Considerations

Relevant Anatomy

  • Aligning the external auditory canal with the sternal notch should align the airway axis to provide an optimal view of the airway.

  • The degree of head elevation that best aligns the ear and sternal notch varies (eg, none in children due to their relatively large occiputs, a large degree in obese patients).

Positioning

  • The sniffing position is the optimal position for endotracheal tube insertion; however, if the neck cannot be positioned this way, the laryngoscope camera often provides adequate visualization.

The sniffing position is used only in the absence of cervical spine injury:

Head and neck positioning to open the airway

A: The head is flat on the stretcher; the airway is constricted. B: Establishing the sniffing position, the ear and sternal notch are aligned, with the face parallel to the ceiling, opening the airway. Adapted from Levitan RM, Kinkle WC: The Airway Cam Pocket Guide to Intubation, ed. 2. Wayne (PA), Airway Cam Technologies, 2007.

Head and neck positioning to open the airway

If cervical spine injury is a possibility:

Step-by-Step Description of Procedure

Maneuvers to create a patent airway and to ventilate and pre-oxygenate the patient are always indicated before attempting tracheal intubation. Once a decision to intubate has been made, do the following:

Aftercare

  • Obtain a chest x-ray to verify proper placement of the endotracheal tube.

Warnings and Common Errors

  • It is imperative to use the appropriate rigid stylet designed for the curvature of a specific video laryngoscope so it follows the curvature of the blade. Use of traditional malleable stylets may result in a failed intubation attempt, especially on anterior airways.

  • When removing the stylet, securely hold the endotracheal tube while an assistant pulls the stylet out, rotating the stylet handle caudally toward the chest, not pulling straight upward, to facilitate easier removal of the stylet and minimizing the risk of dislodging the endotracheal tube.

  • All cuffs, adult or pediatric, should be inflated only to the extent necessary to prevent movement; overinflation leads to necrosis.

Tips and Tricks

  • With difficult airways, use of traditional intubation techniques, such as sweeping the tongue toward the left and applying slight upward and outward elevation, can help facilitate a better view.

  • If an assistant is available, have the assistant insert a finger into the mouth and pull the cheek laterally; this may provide a better view with more intubating space.

  • When looking at the video screen after inserting the endotracheal tube into the mouth, focus on the vocal cords. The view of the vocal cords should be lost only for a brief second while the tube passes through the cords.

  • The video laryngoscope may also be used to more easily place an orogastric tube after intubation, particularly in patients with difficult anatomy.

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