Merck Manual

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Mandibular Condylar Hyperplasia


Gary D. Klasser

, DMD, Louisiana State University School of Dentistry

Reviewed/Revised Sep 2023

Mandibular condylar hyperplasia is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by persistent or accelerated growth of the condyle when growth should be slowing or ended. Growth eventually stops without treatment.

Slowly progressive unilateral enlargement of the head and neck of the condyle causes crossbite malocclusion Malocclusion Malocclusion is abnormal contact between the maxillary and mandibular teeth. (See also Evaluation of the Dental Patient.) This photo shows misalignment between upper and lower teeth as the jaw... read more Malocclusion , facial asymmetry, and shifting of the midpoint of the chin toward the unaffected side. The patient may appear prognathic. The lower border of the mandible is often convex on the affected side. Chondroma and osteochondroma Osteochondroma Benign bone tumors include benign giant cell tumors of bone, chondroblastomas, chondromyxoid fibromas, enchondromas, nonossifying fibromas, osteoblastomas, osteochondromas, and osteoid osteomas... read more Osteochondroma may cause similar symptoms and signs, but they grow more rapidly and may cause even greater asymmetric condylar enlargement.

Diagnosis of Mandibular Condylar Hyperplasia

  • Plain x-rays

  • Usually cone beam CT

On plain x-rays, the temporomandibular joint may appear normal, or the condyle may be proportionally enlarged and the mandibular neck elongated. Cone beam CT is usually done to determine whether bone growth is generalized, which confirms the diagnosis, or localized to a particular part of the condyle. If growth is localized, a biopsy may be necessary to distinguish between tumor and hyperplasia.

Treatment of Mandibular Condylar Hyperplasia

  • During active growth, usually condylectomy

  • After growth cessation, orthodontics followed by surgical mandibular repositioning

Treatment usually includes condylectomy during the period of active growth. If growth has stopped, orthodontics and surgical mandibular repositioning are indicated. If the height of the mandibular body is greatly increased, facial symmetry can be further improved by reducing the inferior border of the mandible.

NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: View Consumer Version
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