Hyperventilation syndrome most commonly occurs among young women but can affect either sex at any age. It is sometimes precipitated by emotionally stressful events. Hyperventilation syndrome is separate from panic disorder Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder A panic attack is the sudden onset of a discrete, brief period of intense discomfort, anxiety, or fear accompanied by somatic and/or cognitive symptoms. Panic disorder is occurrence of repeated... read more , although the two conditions overlap; about half of patients with panic disorder have hyperventilation syndrome and one quarter of patients with hyperventilation syndrome have panic disorder.
Hyperventilation syndrome occurs in 2 forms:
Acute: Acute form is easier to recognize than the chronic.
Chronic: Chronic hyperventilation is more common than acute.
Symptoms and Signs of Hyperventilation Syndrome
Acute hyperventilation syndrome
Patients with acute hyperventilation syndrome present with dyspnea sometimes so severe that they liken it to suffocation. It is accompanied by agitation and a sense of terror or by symptoms of chest pain, paresthesias (peripheral and perioral), peripheral tetany (eg, stiffness of fingers or arms), and presyncope or syncope or sometimes by a combination of all of these findings. Tetany occurs because respiratory alkalosis causes both hypophosphatemia and hypocalcemia. On examination, patients may appear anxious, tachypneic, or both; lung examination is unremarkable.
Chronic hyperventilation syndrome
Patients with chronic hyperventilation syndrome present far less dramatically and often escape detection; they sigh deeply and frequently and often have nonspecific somatic symptoms in the context of mood and anxiety disorders and emotional stress.
Diagnosis of Hyperventilation Syndrome
Testing to exclude other diagnoses (chest x-ray, ECG, pulse oximetry)
Hyperventilation syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion; the challenge is to use tests and resources judiciously to distinguish this syndrome from more serious diagnoses.
Basic testing includes
Pulse oximetry in hyperventilation syndrome shows oxygen saturation at or close to 100%. Chest x-ray is normal. ECG is done to detect cardiac ischemia, although hyperventilation syndrome itself can cause ST-segment depressions, T-wave inversions, and prolonged QT intervals.
Arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements are needed when other causes of hyperventilation are suspected, such as metabolic acidosis Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic acidosis is primary reduction in bicarbonate (HCO3−), typically with compensatory reduction in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2); pH may be markedly low or slightly... read more .
Occasionally, acute hyperventilation syndrome is indistinguishable from acute pulmonary embolism Pulmonary Embolism (PE) Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the occlusion of pulmonary arteries by thrombi that originate elsewhere, typically in the large veins of the legs or pelvis. Risk factors for pulmonary embolism are... read more , and tests for pulmonary embolism (eg, D-dimer, ventilation/perfusion scanning, CT angiography) may be necessary.
Treatment of Hyperventilation Syndrome
Sometimes psychiatric or psychologic treatment
Treatment is reassurance. Some physicians advocate teaching the patient maximal exhalation and diaphragmatic breathing. Most patients require treatment for underlying mood or anxiety disorders; such treatment includes cognitive therapy, stress reduction techniques, drugs (eg, anxiolytics, antidepressants, lithium), or a combination of these techniques.
Drugs Mentioned In This Article
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|Eskalith, Eskalith CR, Lithobid|