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(Major Neurocognitive Disorder)


Juebin Huang

, MD, PhD, Department of Neurology, University of Mississippi Medical Center

Reviewed/Revised Feb 2023
Topic Resources

Dementia is a slow, progressive decline in mental function including memory, thinking, judgment, and the ability to learn.

  • Typically, symptoms include memory loss, problems using language and doing activities, personality changes, disorientation, and disruptive or inappropriate behavior.

  • Symptoms progress so that people cannot function, causing them to become totally dependent on others.

  • Doctors base the diagnosis on symptoms and results of a physical examination and mental status tests.

  • Blood and imaging tests are used to determine the cause.

  • Treatment focuses on maintaining mental function as long as possible and providing support as the person declines.

Dementia occurs primarily in people older than 65. Dementia, particularly the disruptive behavior that often accompanies it, is the reason for more than 50% of admissions to nursing homes. However, dementia is a disorder and is not a part of normal aging. Many people over 100 do not have dementia.

Dementia differs from delirium Delirium Delirium is a sudden, fluctuating, and usually reversible disturbance of mental function. It is characterized by an inability to pay attention, disorientation, an inability to think clearly... read more , which is characterized by an inability to pay attention, disorientation, an inability to think clearly, and fluctuations in the level of alertness.

  • Dementia affects mainly memory, and delirium affects mainly attention.

  • Dementia typically begins gradually and has no definite beginning point. Delirium begins suddenly and often has a definite beginning point.

Age-related changes in the brain (also called age-associated memory impairment) cause some decline in short-term memory and slowing in learning ability. Memories are retrieved more slowly. These changes, unlike dementia, occur normally as people age and do not affect the ability to function and do daily tasks. Such memory loss in older people is not necessarily a sign of dementia or early Alzheimer disease Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a progressive loss of mental function, characterized by degeneration of brain tissue, including loss of nerve cells, the accumulation of an abnormal protein called beta-amyloid... read more . However, the earliest symptoms of dementia are very similar.

Mild cognitive impairment causes greater memory loss than age-associated memory impairment. It may also impair the ability to use language, think, and use good judgment. However, it, like age-associated memory impairment, does not affect the ability to function or do daily tasks. Up to half of people with mild cognitive impairment develop dementia within 3 years.

Subjective cognitive decline refers to a continuing decline in mental function that the affected person notices but that is not identified by standardized tests for mild cognitive impairment. People with subjective cognitive decline perform normally on such tests. However, these people are more likely to develop mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

Dementia is a much more serious decline in mental ability and one that worsens with time. People who are aging normally may misplace things or forget details, but people who have dementia may forget entire events. People who have dementia have difficulty doing normal daily tasks such as driving, cooking, and handling finances.

Rapidly progressive dementia is a group of dementias that progress faster than other dementias. typically within 1 to 2 years. The most obvious early symptom of these dementias is rapidly decreasing mental function. Memory is lost. People have difficulty using language. They also have difficulty planning, solving problems, handling complex tasks (such as managing a bank account), and using good judgment (called executive function).

Other symptoms of rapidly progressive dementias include disruptive behavior, personality changes, mood disorders, psychosis, problems sleeping, and problems walking. Levels of alertness and awareness may be altered. Their limbs may shake and/or jerk involuntarily. The most common cause of rapidly progressive dementia is a prion disorder Overview of Prion Diseases Prion diseases are rare progressive, fatal, and currently untreatable degenerative disorders of the brain (and rarely of other organs) that result when a protein changes into an abnormal form... read more . Other common causes include autoimmune and paraneoplastic encephalitis. Sometimes other types of dementias progress faster than is typical. They include some cases of Alzheimer disease Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a progressive loss of mental function, characterized by degeneration of brain tissue, including loss of nerve cells, the accumulation of an abnormal protein called beta-amyloid... read more , dementia with Lewy bodies Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease Dementia Dementia with Lewy bodies is progressive loss of mental function characterized by the development of Lewy bodies in nerve cells. Parkinson disease dementia is loss of mental function characterized... read more , frontotemporal dementia Frontotemporal Dementia Frontotemporal dementia, which refers to a group of dementias, results from hereditary or spontaneous (occurring for unknown reasons) disorders that cause the frontal and sometimes the temporal... read more , and dementia due to potentially reversible causes Frontotemporal Dementia Frontotemporal dementia, which refers to a group of dementias, results from hereditary or spontaneous (occurring for unknown reasons) disorders that cause the frontal and sometimes the temporal... read more .

Depression Depression Depression is a feeling of sadness and/or a decreased interest or pleasure in activities that becomes a disorder when it is intense enough to interfere with functioning. It may follow a recent... read more may resemble dementia, especially in older people, but the two can often be distinguished. For example, people with depression may eat and sleep little. However, people with dementia usually eat and sleep normally until later in the disease. People with depression may complain bitterly about their memory loss but rarely forget important current events or personal matters. In contrast, people with dementia lack insight about their mental impairments and often deny memory loss. Also, people with depression regain mental function after the depression is treated. However, many people have depression and dementia. In these people, treatment of depression may improve but not entirely restore mental function.

In some types of dementia (such as Alzheimer disease Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a progressive loss of mental function, characterized by degeneration of brain tissue, including loss of nerve cells, the accumulation of an abnormal protein called beta-amyloid... read more ), the level of acetylcholine in the brain is low. Acetylcholine is a chemical messenger (called a neurotransmitter) that helps nerve cells communicate with one another. Acetylcholine helps with memory, learning, and concentration and helps control the functioning of many organs. Other changes occur in the brain, but whether they cause or result from dementia is unclear.

Did You Know...

  • Dementia is a disorder, not a part of normal aging.

  • Many people over 100 do not have dementia.

Causes of Dementia

Dementia usually occurs as a brain disorder with no other cause (called a primary brain disorder), but it can be caused by many disorders.

Common causes of dementia

Most commonly, dementia is

About 60 to 80% of older people with dementia have Alzheimer disease.

Other common types of dementia include

People may have more than one of these dementias (a disorder called mixed dementia). The most common mixed dementia is Alzheimer disease plus vascular cognitive impairment and dementia

Other disorders that can cause dementia

Disorders that can cause dementia include the following:

Reversible or treatable causes of dementias

Most of the conditions that cause dementia cannot be reversed, but some can be treated and may be called reversible dementia. (Some experts use the term dementia only for conditions that progress and cannot be reversed and use terms such as encephalopathy or cognitive loss when dementia may be partly reversible.) Treatment can often cure these dementias if the brain has not been damaged too much. If brain damage is more extensive, treatment often does not reverse the damage, but it can prevent new damage.

Conditions that cause reversible dementia include the following:

A subdural hematoma Subdural Hematomas Intracranial hematomas are accumulations of blood inside the skull, either within the brain or between the brain and the skull. Intracranial hematomas form when a head injury causes blood to... read more Subdural Hematomas (an accumulation of blood between the outer and middle layers of tissue that cover the brain) results when one or more blood vessels breaks, usually because of a head injury. Such injuries can be slight and may not be recognized. Subdural hematomas can cause a slow decline in mental function that may be reversed with treatment.

Other disorders

Many disorders can worsen the symptoms of dementia. They include autoimmune disorders Autoimmune Disorders An autoimmune disorder is a malfunction of the body's immune system that causes the body to attack its own tissues. What triggers an autoimmune disorder is not known. Symptoms vary depending... read more , diabetes Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough or respond normally to insulin, causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to be abnormally high. Symptoms of diabetes may... read more , chronic bronchitis Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is persistent narrowing (blocking, or obstruction) of the airways occurring with emphysema, chronic obstructive bronchitis, or both disorders. Cigarette... read more Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , emphysema, infections, a chronic kidney disorder Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic kidney disease is a slowly progressive (months to years) decline in the kidneys’ ability to filter metabolic waste products from the blood. Major causes are diabetes and high blood pressure... read more , liver disorders Overview of Liver Disease Liver disease can manifest in many different ways. Characteristic manifestations include Jaundice (a yellowish discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes) Cholestasis (reduction or stoppage... read more , and heart failure Heart Failure (HF) Heart failure is a disorder in which the heart is unable to keep up with the demands of the body, leading to reduced blood flow, back-up (congestion) of blood in the veins and lungs, and/or... read more Heart Failure (HF) .


Symptoms of Dementia

Progression of dementia symptoms

In people with dementia, mental function typically deteriorates over a period of 2 to 10 years. However, dementia progresses at different rates depending on the cause:

The rate of progression also varies from person to person. Looking back at how fast it worsened during the previous year often gives an indication about the coming year. Symptoms may worsen when people with dementia are moved to a nursing home or another institution because people with dementia have difficulty learning and remembering new rules and routines.

Problems, such as pain, shortness of breath, retention of urine, and constipation, may cause delirium Delirium Delirium is a sudden, fluctuating, and usually reversible disturbance of mental function. It is characterized by an inability to pay attention, disorientation, an inability to think clearly... read more with rapidly worsening confusion in people who have dementia. If these problems are corrected, people usually return to the level of functioning they had before the problem.

General dementia symptoms

Symptoms of most dementias are similar. Generally, dementia causes the following:

Although when symptoms occur varies, categorizing them as early, intermediate, or late symptoms helps affected people, family members, and other caregivers have some idea of what to expect.

Early dementia symptoms

Early symptoms of dementia tend to be mild.

Because dementia usually begins slowly and worsens over time, it may not be identified at first.

One of the first mental functions to noticeably deteriorate is

  • Memory, especially for recent events

Also, people with dementia typically have more and more difficulty doing the following:

  • Finding and using the right word

  • Understanding language

  • Thinking abstractly, as when working with numbers

  • Doing many daily tasks, such as finding their way around and remembering where they put things

  • Using good judgment

Emotions may be changeable, unpredictably and rapidly switching from happiness to sadness.

Changes in personality are also common. Family members may notice unusual behavior.

Some people with dementia hide their deficiencies well. They follow established routines at home and avoid complex activities such as balancing a checkbook, reading, and working. People who do not modify their lives may become frustrated with their inability to do daily tasks. They may forget to do important tasks or may do them incorrectly. For example, they may forget to pay bills or turn off the lights or stove.

Early in dementia, people may be able to continue driving, but they may become confused in congested traffic and get lost more easily.

Intermediate dementia symptoms

As dementia worsens, the existing problems worsen and expand, causing the following to become difficult or impossible:

  • Learning and remembering new information

  • Sometimes remembering events from the past

  • Doing daily self-care tasks, such as bathing, eating, dressing, and going to the toilet

  • Recognizing people and objects

  • Keeping track of time and knowing where they are

  • Understanding what they see and hear (leading to confusion)

  • Controlling their behavior

People often get lost. They may be unable to find their own bedroom or bathroom. They can walk but are more likely to fall.

As dementia progresses, driving becomes more and more difficult because it requires making quick decisions and coordinating many manual skills. People may not remember where they are going.

Personality traits may become more exaggerated. People who were always concerned with money become obsessed with it. People who were often worried become constant worriers. Some people become irritable, anxious, self-centered, inflexible, or more easily angered. Others become more passive, expressionless, depressed, indecisive, or withdrawn. If changes in their personality or mental function are mentioned, people with dementia may become hostile or agitated.

Sleep patterns are often abnormal. Most people with dementia sleep an appropriate amount, but they spend less time in deep sleep. As a result, they may become restless at night. They may also have problems falling or staying asleep. If people do not exercise enough or do not participate in many activities, they may sleep too much during the day. Then they do not sleep well at night.

Behavior disorders in dementia

Because people are less capable of controlling their behavior, they sometimes act inappropriately or disruptively (for example, by yelling, throwing, hitting, or wandering). These actions are called behavior disorders.

Several effects of dementia contribute to these actions:

  • Because people with dementia have forgotten the rules of proper behavior, they may act in socially inappropriate ways. When hot, they may undress in public. When they have sexual impulses, they may masturbate in public, use off-color or lewd language, or make sexual demands.

  • Because they have difficulty understanding what they see and hear, they may misinterpret an offer of help as a threat and may lash out. For example, when someone tries to help them undress, they may interpret it as an attack and try to protect themselves, sometimes by hitting.

  • Because their short-term memory is impaired, they cannot remember what they are told or have done. They repeat questions and conversations, demand constant attention, or ask for things (such as meals) they have already received. They may become agitated and upset when they do not get what they ask for.

  • Because they cannot express their needs clearly or at all, they may yell when in pain or wander when lonely or frightened. They may wander, yell, or call out when they cannot sleep.

Whether a particular behavior is considered disruptive depends on many factors, including how tolerant the caregiver is and what sort of situation the person with dementia is living in. If the person lives in a safe environment (with locks and alarms on all doors and gates), wandering may be tolerable. However, if the person lives in a nursing home or hospital, wandering may be intolerable because it disturbs other residents or interferes with the operation of the institution. Caregivers may tolerate disruptive behavior better during the day than in the evening.

Late (severe) dementia symptoms

Eventually, people with dementia become unable to follow conversations and become unable to speak. Memory for recent and past events is completely lost. People may not recognize close family members or even their own face in a mirror.

When dementia is advanced, the brain’s ability to function is almost completely destroyed. Advanced dementia interferes with control of muscles. People cannot walk, feed themselves, or do any other daily tasks. They become totally dependent on others and eventually are unable to get out of bed.

Death often results from an infection, such as pneumonia.

Diagnosis of Dementia

  • A doctor's evaluation

  • Mental status testing

  • Sometimes neuropsychologic testing

  • Blood tests and imaging tests to rule out causes

Forgetfulness is usually the first sign of dementia noticed by family members or doctors.

Medical history

Doctors and other health care practitioners can usually diagnose dementia by asking the person and family members a series of questions, such as the following:

  • What is the person’s age?

  • Has any family member had dementia or other types of mental dysfunction (family history)?

  • When and how did symptoms start?

  • How quickly did symptoms worsen?

  • How has the person changed (for example, has the person given up hobbies and activities)?

  • What other disorders does the person have?

  • What drugs is the person taking (because certain drugs can cause symptoms of dementia)?

  • Has the person been depressed or sad, especially if the person is older?

Mental function testing

The person is also given a mental status test Mental Status When a neurologic disorder is suspected, doctors usually evaluate all of the body systems during the physical examination, but they focus on the different parts of the nervous system. Examination... read more , consisting of simple questions and tasks, such as naming objects, recalling short lists, writing sentences, and copying shapes. To test for memory, doctors may read a list of three objects, wait 5 minutes, then ask the person to list them. Usually, people with dementia cannot remember them.

Neuropsychologic testing, which is more detailed, is sometimes needed to clarify the degree of impairment or to determine whether the person is experiencing true mental decline. This testing covers all the main areas of mental function, including mood, and usually takes 1 to 3 hours. This testing helps doctors distinguish dementia from age-associated memory impairment, mild cognitive impairment, and depression.

With information about the person’s symptoms and family history and the results of mental status testing, doctors can usually diagnose dementia.

Based on this information, doctors can also usually rule out delirium as the cause of symptoms (see table Comparing Delirium and Dementia Comparing Delirium and Dementia Comparing Delirium and Dementia ). Doing so is essential because delirium, unlike dementia, can often be reversed if promptly treated.

Findings that indicate dementia include the following:

  • People have problems with thinking and behavior that interfere with doing daily tasks.

  • These problems have become progressively worse, making doing daily tasks more and more difficult.

  • People do not have delirium or a psychiatric disorder that could be causing the problems.

In addition, people have at least two of the following:

  • Difficulty learning and remembering new information

  • Difficulty using language

  • Difficulty understanding where objects are in space, recognizing objects and faces, and understanding how parts of a whole relate to each other

  • Difficulty planning, solving problems, handling complex tasks (such as managing a bank account), and using good judgment (executive function)

  • Changes in personality, behavior, or demeanor

Physical examination

A physical examination, including a neurologic examination Neurologic Examination When a neurologic disorder is suspected, doctors usually evaluate all of the body systems during the physical examination, but they focus on the different parts of the nervous system. Examination... read more , is usually done to determine whether other disorders are present. Doctors look for treatable disorders that may be causing, contributing to, or mistaken for dementia.

Doctors also determine whether another, unrelated physical disorder or psychiatric disorder (such as schizophrenia) is also present because treatment of these disorders may improve the general condition of people with dementia.

Other testing

Blood tests are done. They typically include measuring blood levels of thyroid hormones to check for thyroid disorders and levels of vitamin B12 to check for a deficiency.

If doctors suspect that the cause of dementia is an infection that affects the brain (such as neurosyphilis), an autoimmune disorder, or prion disease, a spinal tap Spinal Tap Diagnostic procedures may be needed to confirm a diagnosis suggested by the medical history and neurologic examination. Imaging tests commonly used to diagnose nervous system (neurologic) disorders... read more Spinal Tap (lumbar puncture) is done.

Computed tomography Computed Tomography (CT) Computed tomography (CT) is a type of medical imaging that combines a series of x-rays to create cross-sectional, detailed images of internal structures. In computed tomography (CT), which used... read more Computed Tomography (CT) (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of medical imaging that uses a strong magnetic field and very high frequency radio waves to produce highly detailed images. During an MRI, a computer... read more Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (MRI) is done during the initial evaluation of dementia. These imaging tests can identify abnormalities that can cause dementia (such as a brain tumor Overview of Brain Tumors A brain tumor can be a noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant) growth in the brain. It may originate in the brain or have spread (metastasized) to the brain from another part of the body... read more , normal-pressure hydrocephalus Normal–Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal-pressure hydrocephalus consists of difficulty walking, urinary incontinence, and dementia due to an increase in the fluid that normally surrounds the brain. Usually, the main symptoms... read more Normal–Pressure Hydrocephalus , a subdural hematoma Subdural Hematomas Intracranial hematomas are accumulations of blood inside the skull, either within the brain or between the brain and the skull. Intracranial hematomas form when a head injury causes blood to... read more Subdural Hematomas , and stroke Overview of Stroke A stroke occurs when an artery to the brain becomes blocked or ruptures, resulting in death of an area of brain tissue due to loss of its blood supply (cerebral infarction). Symptoms occur suddenly... read more ).

However, sometimes the cause of the dementia can be confirmed definitively only when a sample of brain tissue is removed and examined under a microscope. This procedure is sometimes done after death during an autopsy.

Treatment of Dementia

  • Management of conditions that may be causing dementia or making it worse

  • Safety and supportive measures

  • Medications that may improve mental function

  • Caregiver care

  • End-of-life decisions

For most dementias, no treatment can restore mental function. However, treating disorders that are causing or worsening dementia can sometimes stop or reverse the dementia. Such disorders include an underactive thyroid, a subdural hematoma, normal-pressure hydrocephalus, and vitamin B12 deficiency. When such disorders develop in people who already have dementia, treating them sometimes slows mental decline. For people who have dementia and depression, antidepressants Medications for Treatment of Depression Several types of medications can be used to treat depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, serotonin modulators, and serotonin-norepinephrine... read more (such as sertraline and paroxetine) and counseling may help, at least temporarily. For people who drink excessive amounts of alcohol and who have dementia, abstaining from alcohol sometimes results in long-term improvement. Medications that may be making the dementia worse, such as sedatives and medications that affect brain function, are stopped if possible. For people who have an underactive thyroid gland, thyroid hormone replacement may be effective.

Pain and any other disorders or health problems (such as a urinary tract infection or constipation), whether they are related to the dementia or not, are treated. Such treatment may help maintain function in people with dementia.

Creating a safe and supportive environment can be remarkably helpful, and certain medications can help for a while. The person with dementia, family members, other caregivers, and the health care practitioners involved should discuss and decide on the best strategy for that person.

Safety measures

Safety is a concern. A visiting nurse or an occupational or a physical therapist can evaluate homes for safety and recommend useful changes. For example, when the light is dim, people with dementia are even more likely to misinterpret what they see, so lighting should be relatively bright. Leaving a night-light on or installing motion sensor lights may also help. Such changes can help prevent accidents (particularly falls) and help people function better.

Doctors may evaluate how well people with dementia function in specific situations, such as while preparing food or driving. If skills are impaired, safety measures, such as hiding knives or taking the car keys away, may be needed.

Supportive measures

People who have mild to intermediate dementia usually function best in familiar surroundings and can usually remain at home.

Generally, the environment should be bright, cheerful, safe, and stable and include some stimulation, such as a radio or television. The environment should be designed to help with orientation. For example, windows enable people to know generally what time of day it is.

Structure and routine help people with dementia stay oriented and give them a sense of security and stability. Any change in surroundings, routines, or caregivers should be explained to people clearly and simply. Before every procedure or interaction, they should be told what is going to happen, such as a bath or a meal. Taking time to explain can help prevent a fight.

Following a daily routine for tasks such as bathing, eating, and sleeping helps people with dementia remember. Following a regular routine at bedtime may help them sleep better.

Other activities scheduled on a regular basis can help people feel independent and needed by focusing their attention on pleasurable or useful tasks. Such activities can also help relieve depression. Activities related to interests people had before dementia are good choices. Activities should also be enjoyable and provide some stimulation but not too many choices or challenges.

Physical activity relieves stress and frustration and thus can help prevent sleep problems and disruptive behavior, such as agitation and wandering. It also helps improve balance (and thus may help prevent falls) and helps keep the heart and lungs healthy.

Continued mental activity, including hobbies, interest in current events, and reading, helps keep people alert and interested in life. Activities should be broken down in small parts or simplified as the dementia worsens.

Excessive stimulation should be avoided, but people should not be socially isolated.

Frequent visits by staff members and familiar people encourage people to remain social.

Some improvement may occur if

  • Daily routines are simplified.

  • Expectations for people with dementia are realistic.

  • They are enabled to maintain some sense of dignity and self-esteem.

Extra help may be needed. Family members can get a list of available services from health care practitioners, social or human services, or the Internet (through Eldercare Locator). Services may include housekeeping, respite care, meals brought to the home, and daycare programs and activities designed for people with dementia. Around-the-clock care can be arranged but is expensive. The Alzheimer’s Association offers a Safe Return program. This program alerts a community support network that can help return people to their caregiver or a family member.

Planning for the future is essential because dementia is usually progressive. Long before a person with dementia needs to be moved to a more supportive and structured environment, family members should plan for this move and evaluate the options for long-term care. Such planning usually involves the efforts of a doctor, a social worker, nurses, and a lawyer, but most of the responsibility falls on family members. Decisions about moving a person with dementia to a more supportive environment involve balancing the desire to keep the person safe with the desire to maintain the person’s sense of independence as long as possible. Such decisions depend on many factors, such as the following:

  • Severity of the dementia

  • How disruptive the person’s behavior is

  • Home environment

  • Availability of family members and caregivers

  • Financial resources

  • Presence of other, unrelated disorders and physical problems

Some long-term care facilities, including assisted living facilities and nursing homes, specialize in caring for people with dementia. Staff members are trained to understand how people with dementia think and act and how to respond to them. These facilities have routines that make the residents feel secure and provide appropriate activities that help them feel productive and involved in life. Most facilities have appropriate safety features. For example, signs are posted to help residents find their way, and certain doors have locks or alarms to prevent residents from wandering. If one facility does not have these and other safety features, transferring a person who develops a behavior problem to a facility that has these features is usually a better solution than using medications to control the behavior.

Creating a Beneficial Environment for People With Dementia

People with dementia can benefit from an environment that is the following:

  • Safe: Extra safety measures are usually needed. For example, large signs can be posted as safety reminders (such as “remember to turn the stove off”), or timers can be installed on stoves or electrical equipment. Hiding car keys may help prevent accidents and placing detectors on doors may help prevent wandering. If wandering is a problem, an identification bracelet or necklace is helpful.

  • Familiar: People with dementia usually function best in familiar surroundings. Moving to a new home or city, rearranging furniture, or even repainting can be disruptive.

  • Stable: Establishing a regular routine for bathing, eating, sleeping, and other activities can give people with dementia a sense of stability. Regular contact with the same people can also help.

  • Planned to help with orientation: A large daily calendar, a clock with large numbers, a radio, well-lit rooms, and a night-light can help with orientation. Also, family members or caregivers can make frequent comments that remind people with dementia of where they are and what is going on.

Some people with dementia worsen when they are moved from their home to a long-term care facility. However, after a short time, most people adjust and function better in the more supportive environment.

Medications that may improve mental function

Donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine are cholinesterase inhibitors. They inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks acetylcholine down. Thus, these medications help increase the level of acetylcholine, which helps nerve cells communicate. These medications may temporarily improve mental function in people with dementia, but they do not slow the progression of dementia. They are most useful in early dementia, but their effectiveness varies considerably from person to person. About one third of people do not benefit. About one third improve slightly for a few months. The rest improve considerably for a longer time, but the dementia eventually progresses.

If one cholinesterase inhibitor is ineffective or has side effects, another should be tried. If none is effective or all have side effects, this type of medication should be stopped. The most common side effects include nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and abdominal pain or cramps. Tacrine, the first cholinesterase inhibitor developed for treating dementia, is rarely used anymore because it can damage the liver.

Memantine, an NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) antagonist, may improve mental function in people with moderate to severe dementia. Memantine works differently from cholinesterase inhibitors and may be used with them. The combination may be more effective than either medication alone.

Medications that help control disruptive behavior

If disruptive behavior develops, medications are sometimes used. However, disruptive behavior is best controlled with strategies that do not include medications and are tailored to the specific person. Medications are used only when other strategies, such as changes in the environment, are ineffective and when using medications is essential to keeping the person with dementia and/or others safe.

These medications include the following:

Other medications

Sedatives (including benzodiazepines such as lorazepam) are sometimes used for a short time to relieve anxiety related to a particular event, but such treatment is not recommended for the long term.

If medications are used, family members should talk with the doctor periodically about whether the medications are really helping.

Dietary supplements

Many dietary supplements have been tried but have generally proved of little value in treating dementia. They include lecithin, ergoloid mesylates, and cyclandelate. An extract of Ginkgo biloba, a dietary supplement, is marketed as a memory enhancer. However, studies do not show any benefit from taking ginkgo Ginkgo Ginkgo is derived from the leaves of the ginkgo tree (commonly planted for ornamental purposes). The leaves contain numerous biologically active substances, such as ginkgolides and flavonoids... read more , and in high doses, it may have side effects.

Vitamin B12 supplements are effective only in people who have vitamin B12 deficiency

Before using any dietary supplement, people should talk with their doctor.

Care for caregivers

Caring for people with dementia is stressful and demanding, and caregivers may become depressed and exhausted, often neglecting their own mental and physical health.

The following measures can help caregivers:

  • Learning about how to effectively meet the needs of people with dementia and what to expect from them: Caregivers can get this information from nurses, social workers, organizations, and published and online materials.

  • Seeking help when it is needed: Caregivers can talk to social workers (including those in the local community hospital) about appropriate sources of help, such as day-care programs, visits by home nurses, part-time or full-time housekeeping assistance, and live-in assistance. Counseling and support groups can also help.

  • Caring for self: Caregivers need to remember to take care of themselves. They should not give up their friends, hobbies, and activities.

Caring for Caregivers

Caring for people with dementia is stressful and demanding, and caregivers may become depressed and exhausted, often neglecting their own mental and physical health.

The following measures can help caregivers:

  • Learning about how to effectively meet the needs of people with dementia and what to expect from them: For example, caregivers need to know that scolding about making mistakes or not remembering may only make behaviors worse. Such knowledge helps prevent unnecessary distress. Caregivers can also learn how to respond to disruptive behavior and thus calm the person more quickly and sometimes prevent disruptive behavior.

    Information about what to do on a daily basis may be obtained from nurses, social workers, and organizations, as well as from published and online materials.

  • Seeking help when it is needed: Relief from the burdens of around-the-clock care of a person with dementia is often available, depending on the specific behavior and capabilities of the person and on family and community resources. Social agencies, including the social service department of the local community hospital, can help locate appropriate sources of help.

    Options include day-care programs, visits by home nurses, part-time or full-time housekeeping assistance, and live-in assistance. Transportation and meal services may be available. Full-time care can be very expensive, but many insurance plans cover some of the cost.

    Caregivers may benefit from counseling and support groups.

  • Caring for self: Caregivers need to remember to take care of themselves. For example, engaging in physical activity can improve mood as well as health. Friends, hobbies, and activities should not be abandoned.

End-of-life issues

Before people with dementia become too incapacitated, decisions should be made about medical care, and financial and legal arrangements should be made. These arrangements are called advance directives Advance Directives Health care advance directives are legal documents that communicate a person’s wishes about health care decisions in the event the person becomes incapable of making health care decisions. There... read more . People should appoint a person who is legally authorized to make treatment decisions on their behalf (health care proxy) and discuss health care wishes Treatment Options at the End of Life Often, the available choices for end-of-life care involve a decision whether to accept the likelihood of dying sooner but to be more comfortable or attempt to live slightly longer by receiving... read more with this person and their doctor (see Legal and Ethical Concerns Legal and Ethical Concerns at the End of Life People and their family members often have specific wishes and needs related to death and dying. Advance directives instruct family members and health care practitioners about a person’s decisions... read more ). For example, people with early-stage dementia should decide whether they want artificial feeding or antibiotics to treat infections (such as pneumonia) when dementia is very advanced. Such issues are best discussed with all concerned long before decisions are necessary.

As dementia worsens, treatment tends to be directed at maintaining the person’s comfort rather than at attempting to prolong life. Often, aggressive treatments, such as artificial feeding, increase discomfort.

In contrast, less drastic treatments can relieve discomfort. These treatments include

Nursing care is most helpful when it is provided by one caregiver (or a few) who develops a consistent relationship with the person. A comforting, reassuring voice and soothing music may also help.

More Information

The following English-language resources may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of these resources.

  • Alzheimer's Association: Information about Alzheimer disease, including statistics, causes, risk factors, and symptoms. Also resources for support, including information about daily care of people with Alzheimer disease, care for the caregiver, and support groups.

  • The Alzheimer's Society: A guide to dementia (including five things important things to know), a guide for caregivers, and information about the types of dementia, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, risk factors, and prevention.

  • Information about the causes, symptoms, treatments, and stages of dementia.

  • Health Direct: Dementia Video Series: General information about dementia, recommendations about the warning signs of dementia, treatment and research, and caring for a person with dementia. Also provides links to articles on similar topics.

  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke's Dementia Information Page: Information about treatments and prognosis and links to clinical trials.

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Generic Name Select Brand Names
ENDUR-ACIN, ENDUR-AMIDE, Niacor, Niaspan, NiaVasc, Nicomide-T, Slo-Niacin
Zoloft, Zoloft Concentrate, Zoloft Solution
Brisdelle, Paxil, Paxil CR, Pexeva
Razadyne, Razadyne ER , Reminyl, Reminyl ER
Exelon, Exelon Patch
Namenda, Namenda XR
Abilify, Abilify Asimtufii, Abilify Discmelt, Abilify Maintena, Abilify Mycite, Aristada
Zyprexa, Zyprexa Intramuscular, Zyprexa Relprevv, Zyprexa Zydis
PERSERIS, Risperdal, Risperdal Consta, Risperdal M-Tab, Rykindo, UZEDY
Seroquel, Seroquel XR
Carbatrol, Epitol , Equetro, Tegretol, Tegretol -XR
Active-PAC with Gabapentin, Gabarone , Gralise, Horizant, Neurontin
Ativan, Loreev XR
Hydergine, Hydergine LC
No brand name available
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