A piece of intestine protrudes through a hole in the groin.
Typically, children develop a painless bulge in the groin or scrotum.
The diagnosis is based on an examination and imaging tests.
Usually, the hernia is repaired surgically.
(For adults, see Inguinal Hernia Inguinal Hernia An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of a piece of intestine or another abdominal organ through an opening in the abdominal wall in the groin. People have a bulge in the groin or scrotum, which... read more .)
A hernia in the groin is called an inguinal hernia (see figure ). Inguinal hernias are more common among boys, particularly those who are premature. The right side is affected most commonly, and about 10% of inguinal hernias occur on both sides of the groin.
An inguinal hernia extends into the groin and can extend into the scrotum. With an inguinal hernia, the opening in the abdominal wall can be present from birth or develop later in life.
What Is an Inguinal Hernia?
In an inguinal hernia, a loop of intestine or another abdominal organ pushes through an opening in the abdominal wall into the inguinal canal. The inguinal canal contains the spermatic cord, which consists of the vas deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and other structures. Before birth, the testes, which are formed in the abdomen, pass through the inguinal canal as they descend into the scrotum.
Symptoms of Inguinal Hernia
Inguinal hernias usually cause a painless bulge in the groin or scrotum.
Complications of inguinal hernia
Sometimes a portion of the intestine is trapped in the scrotum (called incarceration), and the bulge may become firm, tender, swollen, and the skin may be red.
If the intestine becomes trapped, the intestine’s blood supply can be cut off (called strangulation). A strangulated hernia causes steady, gradually increasing pain, typically with nausea and vomiting. The bulge is tender, and the skin may be red. Strangulated intestine may die (develop gangrene) within hours, so this condition is an emergency.
Diagnosis of Inguinal Hernia
A doctor's examination
Sometimes imaging tests
Doctors base the diagnosis on an examination.
Sometimes the doctor does ultrasonography Ultrasound Scanning (Ultrasonography) of the Abdomen Ultrasound scanning uses sound waves to produce pictures of internal organs (see also Ultrasonography). An ultrasound scan can show the size and shape of many organs, such as the liver and pancreas... read more to help make the diagnosis.
Treatment of Inguinal Hernia
If the hernia is strangulated or incarcerated, surgery is done immediately.
If the hernia is not causing symptoms, doctors usually advise surgery because inguinal hernias can become incarcerated. Before surgery, doctors may try to push the intestine back into place by hand (called manual reduction).