An abdominal wall hernia is a bulge in your belly. The bulge is made by your small intestine when it pushes through a small hole or weak area in the wall of your belly.
Hernias are named by where they occur. Abdominal wall hernias can happen in many different places:
Inguinal hernia: in the crease of your groin or in your scrotum (the sac around your testicles)
Umbilical hernia: around your belly button, which is more common in babies
Epigastric hernia: in the middle of your belly, above your belly button and below your rib cage
Femoral hernia: just below the crease of your groin in the middle of your upper thigh
Incisional hernia: in a place where your abdominal wall had been cut for surgery (this may happen many years after the surgery)
These places are all weak spots in your abdominal wall. An opening can develop on its own or when you strain.
An incarcerated hernia is when a loop of your intestine gets stuck in the hernia. This can block your intestine.
A strangulated hernia is when your intestine is trapped so tightly that its blood supply is cut off. The part of the intestine that isn't getting enough blood can burst and die and, if not treated, can kill you.
A "sports hernia" isn't really a hernia. It's a torn muscle in your lower belly that can cause pain in the same place as a real hernia.
Usually, the only symptom of a hernia is a bulge where the hernia is. You may be able to see the bulge only when you lift something or strain. You or your doctor can usually push the bulge back into place.
Incarcerated hernias can't be pushed back into place and can be more painful.
Strangulated hernias can't be pushed back into place and cause these symptoms:
Incarcerated and strangulated hernias can block your intestines so that food and fluids can't move through them. This blockage is called an intestinal obstruction. Intestinal obstruction makes you sick to your stomach and causes your belly to swell. It's an emergency.
Doctors treat your hernia based on where it is and what symptoms you have. Some hernias are left alone. Other hernias need surgery before they cause problems. But doctors do surgery right away if the hernia is incarcerated or strangulated.
In babies, hernias around the belly button usually go away without treatment.