Merck Manual

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Overview of the Female Reproductive System

By

Jessica E. McLaughlin

, MD, Medical University of South Carolina

Medically Reviewed Apr 2022 | Modified Sep 2022
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Overview of the Female Reproductive System
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The hypothalamus orchestrates the interactions among the genital organs, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands to regulate the female reproductive system (see figure Major Endocrine Glands Major Endocrine Glands Major Endocrine Glands ). These parts of the body interact with each other by releasing hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers that control and coordinate activities in the body.

The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which stimulates the pituitary gland to produce luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. These hormones stimulate the ovaries to produce the female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and some male sex hormones (androgens). (Male sex hormones stimulate the growth of pubic and underarm hair at puberty Puberty in Girls Puberty is a sequence of events in which physical changes occur, resulting in adult physical characteristics and capacity to reproduce. These physical changes are regulated by changes in the... read more and maintain muscle mass in girls as well as boys.) After childbirth, the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to produce prolactin, a hormone that stimulates milk production.

The adrenal glands produce small amounts of female and male sex hormones.

Major Endocrine Glands

The major glands of the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the islet cells of the pancreas, the adrenal glands, the testes in men, and the ovaries in women.

Major Endocrine Glands
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