Gynecologic cancers often involve the uterus Endometrial Cancer Endometrial cancer is usually endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Typically, postmenopausal vaginal bleeding occurs. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Staging is surgical. Treatment requires hysterectomy, bilateral... read more , ovaries Ovarian Cancer Ovarian cancer is often fatal because it is usually advanced when diagnosed. Symptoms are usually absent in early stages and nonspecific in advanced stages. Evaluation usually includes ultrasonography... read more , cervix Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is usually a squamous cell carcinoma caused by human papillomavirus infection; less often, it is an adenocarcinoma. Cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic; the first symptom of early... read more , vulva Vulvar Cancer Vulvar cancer is usually a squamous cell skin cancer, most often occurring in older women. It usually manifests as a palpable lesion. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Treatment typically includes excision... read more , vagina Vaginal Cancer Vaginal cancer is usually a squamous cell carcinoma, most often occurring in women > 60. The most common symptom is abnormal vaginal bleeding. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Treatment for many small... read more , fallopian tubes Fallopian Tube Cancer Fallopian tube cancer is usually adenocarcinoma, manifesting as an adnexal mass or with vague symptoms. Diagnosis, staging, and primary treatment are surgical. High-grade serous epithelial ovarian... read more , or the peritoneum. The most common gynecologic cancer in the US is endometrial cancer, followed by ovarian cancer. Cervical cancer is not very common in developed countries because screening with the Papanicolaou (Pap) test and with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing are widely available and effective.
Gestational trophoblastic disease Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Gestational trophoblastic disease is proliferation of trophoblastic tissue in pregnant or recently pregnant women. Manifestations may include excessive uterine enlargement, vomiting, vaginal... read more is a gynecologic tumor that may behave aggressively whether malignant or not.
Many gynecologic cancers manifest as pelvic masses Pelvic Mass A pelvic mass may be detected during routine gynecologic examination. A pelvic mass may be noncancerous or cancerous. Pelvic masses may originate from gynecologic organs (cervix, uterus, uterine... read more .