Infantile spasms last a few seconds and can recur many times a day. They usually manifest in children < 1 year of age. Seizures may resolve spontaneously by about 5 years of age but are often replaced by other types of seizures.
Pathophysiology is unknown; however, infantile spasms may reflect abnormal interactions between the cortex and brain stem.
Causes of Infantile Spasms
Usually, infantile spasms occur in infants with serious brain disorders and developmental abnormalities that often have already been recognized. These disorders may include
Tuberous sclerosis complex Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) Tuberous sclerosis complex is a dominantly inherited genetic disorder in which tumors (usually hamartomas) develop in multiple organs. Diagnosis requires specific clinical criteria and imaging... read more is a common cause; prognosis is sometimes better when seizures are caused by this disorder than when seizures have other identifiable causes.
Sometimes the cause of infantile spasms cannot be identified.
Symptoms and Signs of Infantile Spasms
Spasms begin with a sudden, rapid, tonic contraction of the trunk and limbs, sometimes for several seconds. Spasms range from subtle head nodding to contraction of the whole body. They involve flexion, extension, or, more often, both (mixed). The spasms usually occur in clusters, often several dozen, in close succession and occur typically after children wake up and occasionally when falling asleep. Sometimes, at first, they are mistaken for startles.
Developmental delays (see Childhood Development Childhood Development Descriptions of development are often divided into specific domains, such as gross motor, fine motor, language, cognition, and social/emotional growth. These designations are useful, but substantial... read more ) may be present before the onset of infantile spasm. In infants with normal development, developmental regression can occur (eg, children may stop smiling or lose the ability to sit up or roll over).
Rate of premature death ranges from 5 to 31% (1 Symptoms and signs reference Infantile spasms are seizures characterized by sudden flexion of the arms, forward flexion of the trunk, extension of the legs, and hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalography. Treatment is adrenocorticotropic... read more ) and is related to the etiology of the infantile spasms.
Symptoms and signs reference
1. Riikonen R: Long-term outcome of West syndrome: A study of adults with a history of infantile spasms. Epilepsia 37(4):367–372, 1996. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1996.tb00573.x
Diagnosis of Infantile Spasms
Electroencephalography (EEG) with awake and asleep stages
Neuroimaging, preferably MRI
Testing to identify the cause unless an underlying significant neurologic disorder has already been identified
Previous history (eg, neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy) and/or symptoms and signs suggest the diagnosis of infantile spasms in some children. Physical and neurologic examinations are done, but often no pathognomonic findings are identified except in tuberous sclerosis complex Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) Tuberous sclerosis complex is a dominantly inherited genetic disorder in which tumors (usually hamartomas) develop in multiple organs. Diagnosis requires specific clinical criteria and imaging... read more .
EEG is done to confirm the diagnosis and check for specific abnormalities. Typically, the interictal pattern is hypsarrhythmia (chaotic, high-voltage polymorphic delta and theta waves with superimposed multifocal spike discharges). Multiple variations (eg, focal or asymmetric hypsarrhythmia) are possible. The ictal pattern is usually a sudden, marked and diffuse attenuation of electrical activity.
Neuroimaging, preferably MRI, is done if it has not already recently been done.
Tests to determine the cause
If it is not clear from neuroimaging or the previous history, tests to determine the cause may include
Laboratory tests (eg, complete blood count with differential; measurement of serum glucose, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, serum amino acids, and urine organic acids; liver tests) if a metabolic disorder is suspected
Genetic testing (epilepsy gene panels are available)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis to check for metabolic disorders
(See also Approach to the Patient With a Suspected Inherited Disorder of Metabolism Approach to the Patient With a Suspected Inherited Disorder of Metabolism Most inherited disorders of metabolism (inborn errors of metabolism) are rare, and therefore their diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Timely diagnosis leads to early treatment and... read more .)
Treatment of Infantile Spasms
Intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Vigabatrin (especially for tuberous sclerosis complex)
Infantile spasms are not responsive to typical antiseizure medications.
The standard therapies for infantile spasms can be any one of the following.
ACTH can be given daily IM as either high-dose (150 units/m2) ACTH or low-dose (20 units/m2) ACTH. The Pediatric Epilepsy Research Consortium (PERC) recommends the higher dose, given for 2 weeks and then tapered down every 3 days until 29 days of treatment are completed. If low-dose therapy is tried and has not stopped spasms within 2 weeks, the higher dose is used.
Corticosteroids (eg, oral prednisone) are given for 4 to 7 weeks. A regimen recommended by PERC uses oral prednisolone as follows:
Days 1 to 14: 10 mg 4 times a day
Days 15 to 19: 10 mg 3 times a day
Days 20 to 24: 10 mg 2 times a day
Days 25 to 29: 10 mg once a day
Vigabatrin is the drug of choice when the spasms are caused by tuberous sclerosis complex Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) Tuberous sclerosis complex is a dominantly inherited genetic disorder in which tumors (usually hamartomas) develop in multiple organs. Diagnosis requires specific clinical criteria and imaging... read more . It is also often used in children with an established preexisting serious brain injury or malformation and in those who do not tolerate or respond to ACTH. Dosage of oral vigabatrin is 25 mg/kg 2 times a day, increased gradually over about a week up to 75 mg/kg 2 times a day if needed. There is insufficient evidence that any other antiseizure medication or the ketogenic diet is effective.
In some patients with resistant spasms or with focal cortical malformation, epilepsy surgery Surgery A seizure is an abnormal, unregulated electrical discharge that occurs within the brain’s cortical gray matter and transiently interrupts normal brain function. A seizure typically causes altered... read more can eliminate seizures.
There is evidence that the more quickly effective therapy is initiated, the better the neurodevelopmental outcome, particularly when no cause is identified.
Knupp KG, Coryell J, Nickels KC, et al: Response to treatment in a prospective national infantile spasms cohort. Ann Neurol 79(3):475–484, 2016. doi: 10.1002/ana.24594
Infantile spasms last a few seconds and can recur many times a day; they may resolve spontaneously by about 5 years of age but are often replaced by other types of seizures.
Usually, infantile spasms occur in infants with serious brain disorders and developmental abnormalities that often have already been recognized; tuberous sclerosis complex is a common cause.
Do electroencephalography to confirm the diagnosis, and other tests (eg, brain MRI and metabolic and genetic testing) to evaluate the cause of infantile spasm.
Infantile spasms can be treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), vigabatrin (the drug of choice for spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex), or oral corticosteroids.
Drugs Mentioned In This Article
|Drug Name||Select Trade|
|Aluvea , BP-50% Urea , BP-K50, Carmol, CEM-Urea, Cerovel, DermacinRx Urea, Epimide-50, Gord Urea, Gordons Urea, Hydro 35 , Hydro 40, Kerafoam, Kerafoam 42, Keralac, Keralac Nailstik, Keratol, Keratol Plus, Kerol, Kerol AD, Kerol ZX, Latrix, Mectalyte, Nutraplus, RE Urea 40, RE Urea 50 , Rea Lo, Remeven, RE-U40, RYNODERM , U40, U-Kera, Ultra Mide 25, Ultralytic-2, Umecta, Umecta Nail Film, URALISS, Uramaxin , Uramaxin GT, Urea, Ureacin-10, Ureacin-20, Urealac , Ureaphil, Uredeb, URE-K , Uremez-40, Ure-Na, Uresol, Utopic, Vanamide, Xurea, X-VIATE|
|Deltasone, Predone, RAYOS, Sterapred, Sterapred DS|
|AK-Pred, AsmalPred, Econopred, Econopred Plus, Flo-Pred, Hydeltrasol, Inflamase Forte, Inflamase Mild, Millipred , Millipred DP, Millipred DP 12-Day, Millipred DP 6 Day, Ocu-Pred , Ocu-Pred A, Ocu-Pred Forte, Omnipred, Orapred, Orapred ODT, Pediapred, Pred Mild, Predalone, Pred-Forte, Prednoral, Pred-Phosphate , Prelone, Veripred-20|