Echinacea, a North American wildflower, contains a variety of biologically active substances.
(See also Overview of Dietary Supplements Overview of Dietary Supplements Dietary supplements are the most commonly used of all integrative, complementary, and alternative therapies, primarily because they are widely available, relatively inexpensive, and can be bought... read more .)
Echinacea is said to stimulate the immune system. When taken at the start of a cold, it is said to shorten the duration of cold symptoms. Well-designed studies have not supported this effect.
Topical preparations are used to promote wound healing.
Studies of echinacea's role in preventing and/or treating the common cold are inconsistent. The largest factor contributing to inconsistency is the variability of plant preparations (including different plant parts and species) and ultimately composition of the supplement.
A 2014 Cochrane review of 24 studies (4631 participants) evaluated a variety of different echinacea products to prevent or treat colds. No benefit was shown for prevention, although a post hoc pooling of prevention studies implied a 10 to 20% relative risk reduction. The authors concluded some products had weak benefit (1 References Echinacea, a North American wildflower, contains a variety of biologically active substances. (See also Overview of Dietary Supplements.) Echinacea is said to stimulate the immune system. When... read more ). A 2019 systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials assessed the impact of echinacea on prevention, duration, and safety for upper respiratory tract infections. There was a significant effect on prevention but no impact on symptom duration and no safety risk (2 References Echinacea, a North American wildflower, contains a variety of biologically active substances. (See also Overview of Dietary Supplements.) Echinacea is said to stimulate the immune system. When... read more ). However, a limitation was heterogeneity of included studies.
Most adverse effects are mild and transitory; they include dizziness, fatigue, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms. No other adverse effects are known. Theoretically, echinacea is contraindicated in patients with autoimmune disorders, multiple sclerosis, AIDS, tuberculosis, and organ transplants because it may stimulate T cells. Allergic reactions are possible in patients with allergies to ragweed, chrysanthemum, marigold, daisies, or related allergens.
Echinacea inhibits some cytochrome P-450 enzymes and induces some enzymes; it can therefore potentially interact with drugs metabolized by the same enzymes (eg, anabolic steroids, azole antifungals, methotrexate, etoposide, and other chemotherapeutic drugs).
(See also table .)
1. Karsch-Volk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, et al: Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2) CD000530, 2014. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000530.pub3
2. David S, Cunningham R: Echinacea for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Med 44:18-26, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2019.03.011
The following English-language resource may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health: General information on the use of echinacea as a dietary supplement
Drugs Mentioned In This Article
|Drug Name||Select Trade|
|No brand name available|
|Otrexup, Rasuvo, RediTrex, Rheumatrex, Trexall, Xatmep|
|Etopophos, Toposar, VePesid|