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Overview of Nephritic Syndrome
Nephritic syndrome is defined by hematuria, variable degrees of proteinuria, usually dysmorphic RBCs, and often RBC casts on microscopic examination of urinary sediment. Often ≥ 1 of the following elements are present: edema, hypertension, elevated serum creatinine, and oliguria. It has both primary and secondary causes. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, and sometimes renal biopsy. Treatment and prognosis vary by cause.
Nephritic syndrome is a manifestation of glomerular inflammation (glomerulonephritis [GN]) and occurs at any age. Causes differ by age (see Glomerular Disorders by Age and Manifestations), and mechanisms differ by cause. The syndrome can be acute or chronic and primary (idiopathic) or secondary.
Postinfectious GN is the prototype of acute GN (see Postinfectious Glomerulonephritis), but the condition may be caused by other glomerulopathies and by systemic disorders such as connective tissue disorders and hematologic dyscrasias (see Causes of Glomerulonephritis). Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (see Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis (RPGN)) is another acute GN. Chronic GN has features similar to those of acute GN but develops slowly and may cause mild to moderate proteinuria. Examples include IgA nephropathy (see Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy (IgA Nephropathy)), hereditary nephritis (see Hereditary Nephritis), and thin basement membrane disease (see Thin Basement Membrane Disease).
Causes of Glomerulonephritis
Drug NameSelect Brand Names
hydralazineNo US brand name
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