Merck Manual

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Contributors

Content last modified Oct 2020

We gratefully acknowledge the expertise of the contributors to our current online version. The subject(s) that they are responsible for are listed after their affiliations.

Denise M. Aaron, MD

Dartmouth Geisel School of Medicine
Fungal Skin Infections, Noncancerous Skin Growths

Bola Adamolekun, MD

University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Seizure Disorders

Chris G. Adigun, MD

Dermatology & Laser Center of Chapel Hill
Nail Disorders

Gerald L. Andriole, MD

Johns Hopkins Medicine
Benign Prostate Disorders

Parswa Ansari, MD

Hofstra Northwell-Lenox Hill Hospital, New York
Anal and Rectal Disorders, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Gastrointestinal Emergencies

Noel A. Armenakas, MD

Weill Cornell Medical School|New York Presbyterian Hospital|Hofstra University|Lenox Hill Hospital
Injury to the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Guy P. Armstrong, MD

Waitemata District Health Board and Waitemata Cardiology, Auckland|North Shore Hospital, Auckland
Endocarditis, Heart Valve Disorders

Thomas Arnold, MD

Department of Emergency Medicine, LSU Health Sciences Center Shreveport|Lousiana Poison Center
Bites and Stings

Raul Artal-Mittelmark, MD

Saint Louis University School of Medicine
High-Risk Pregnancy, Normal Labor and Delivery, Normal Pregnancy

Evelyn Attia, MD

Columbia University Medical Center|Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University|New York State Psychiatric Institute|Columbia University Medical Center|New York-Presbyterian Hospital
Eating Disorders

Haya Aziz, MD

McGill University
Atherosclerosis

Debra Bakerjian, PhD, APRN

University of California Davis
Providing Care to Older People

George L. Bakris, MD

University of Chicago School of Medicine
High Blood Pressure

Arcangela Lattari Balest, MD

University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine|Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC
General Problems in Newborns, Lung and Breathing Problems in Newborns

David H. Barad, MD, MS

Center for Human Reproduction|Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Symptoms of Gynecologic Disorders, Diagnosis of Gynecologic Disorders

Peggy P. Barco, OTD, OTR/L, BSW, SCDCM, CDRS, FAOTA

Washington University Medical School
The Older Driver

Robert A. Barish, MD, MBA

University of Illinois at Chicago|University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System|Association of Academic Health Centers (AAHC)|Economic Club of Chicago|Institute of Medicine Chicago
Bites and Stings

Jennifer M. Barker, MD

Children's Hospital Colorado, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology
Polyglandular Deficiency Syndromes

John W. Barnhill, MD

New York-Presbyterian Hospital|Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University|Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons
Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders

Michael Bartel, MD, PhD

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University|Bayhealth Medical Center
Pancreatitis

Joel A. Baum, MD

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Diverticular Disease

Lee B. Beerman, MD

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Birth Defects of the Heart

Julia Benedetti, MD

Harvard Medical School|Tufts University School of Medicine
Biology of the Skin, Hypersensitivity and Reactive Skin Disorders, Sunlight and Skin Damage

James R. Berenson, MD

Institute for Myeloma and Bone Cancer Research
Plasma Cell Disorders

John L. Berk, MD

Amyloidosis Center, Boston University Medical Center
Amyloidosis

Barbara J. Berkman, DSW, PhD

Columbia University School of Social Work
Elder Abuse, Social Issues Affecting Older People

Rajeev Bhatia, MD

Phoenix Children's Hospital|University of Arizona College of Medicine
Respiratory Disorders in Infants and Children

Scott W. Biest, MD

Washington University School of Medicine
Fibroids

Donald W. Black, MD

University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine|Iowa City Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance

Karen Blackstone, MD

George Washington University|Washington DC Veterans Administration Medical Center
Death and Dying

Steven D. Blatt, MD

State University of New York, Upstate Medical University|State University of New York, Upstate Medical University
Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families

Marcy B. Bolster, MD

Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Osteoporosis

Herbert L. Bonkovsky, MD

Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Porphyrias

Simeon A. Boyadjiev Boyd, MD

University of California, Davis
Birth Defects of the Face, Bones, Joints, and Muscles

Christopher J. Brady, MD

Wilmer Eye Institute, Retina Division, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine|Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont
Symptoms of Eye Disorders

Evan M. Braunstein, MD, PhD

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Anemia

George R. Brown, MD

East Tennessee State University|East Tennessee State University
Paraphilias and Paraphilic Disorders, Gender Dysphoria, Sexuality

Erika F. Brutsaert, MD

New York Medical College|Westchester Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism

Emily E. Bunce, MD

Wake Forest School of Medicine
Symptoms During Pregnancy

Larry M. Bush, MD, FACP

Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University|University of Miami-Miller School of Medicine
Biology of Infectious Disease, Bacterial Infections: Overview, Bacterial Infections: Anaerobic Bacteria, Bacterial Infections: Gram-Negative Bacteria, Bacterial Infections: Gram-Positive Bacteria, Bacterial Infections: Spirochetes, Meningococcal Infections

Jerrold T. Bushberg, PhD, DABMP

School of Medicine, University of California, Davis|The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
Radiation Injury

Edward R. Cachay, MD, MAS

University of California, San Diego School of Medicine
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Andrew Calabria, MD

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia|Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania
Hormonal Disorders in Children

Danielle Campagne, MD

University of California, San Francisco|University of California, San Francisco - Fresno|American Ambulance
Dislocations, Fractures, Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries

John D. Carmichael, MD

Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California|USC Pitutiary Center, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California
Pituitary Gland Disorders

David B. Carr, MD

Washington University School of Medicine|Washington University School of Medicine
The Older Driver

Damien Wilson Carter, MD

Tufts University School of Medicine|Maine Medical Center
Burns

Thomas Cascino, MD, MSc

Michigan Medicine, University of Michigan
Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Frances E. Casey, MD, MPH

Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center
Family Planning

Thenappan Chandrasekar, MD

Thomas Jefferson University
Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract

Julia F. Charles, MD, PhD

Brigham and Women's Hospital|Harvard Medical School
Paget Disease of Bone

Alan G. Cheng, MD

Stanford University
Mouth and Throat Disorders

Lydia Choi, MD

Karmanos Cancer Center|Wayne State School of Medicine
Breast Disorders

Ji Y. Chong, MD

Weill Cornell Medical College|New York Presbyterian Lower Manhattan Methodist Hospital
Stroke (CVA)

Paul H. Chung, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University
Diagnosis of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders

Erin G. Clifton, PhD

University of Michigan
Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault

Elizabeth L. Cobbs, MD

George Washington University|Washington DC Veterans Administration Medical Center
Death and Dying

William J. Cochran, MD

Geisinger Clinic
Birth Defects of the Digestive Tract, Digestive Disorders in Children, Gastrointestinal (GI) and Liver Problems in Newborns

Rafael Antonio Ching Companioni, MD

Diverticular Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)

Allison Conn, MD

Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Pavilion for Women
Sexual Dysfunction in Women

Deborah M. Consolini, MD

Thomas Jefferson University Hospital|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Care of Newborns and Infants, Health Supervision of Well Children, Symptoms in Infants and Children

André V Coombs, MBBS

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Surgery

William Coryell, MD

University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine
Mood Disorders

Jimena Cubillos, MD

University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Birth Defects of the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Deepan S. Dalal, MD, MPH

Brown University
Muscle, Bursa, and Tendon Disorders

Patricia A. Daly, MD

University of Virginia
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Daniel F. Danzl, MD

University of Louisville School of Medicine
Cold Injuries

Shinjita Das, MD

Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Pigment Disorders, Psoriasis and Scaling Disorders, Sweating Disorders

Michael H. Davidson, MD, FACC, FNLA

University of Chicago Medicine, Pritzker School of Medicine
Cholesterol Disorders

Peter J. Delves, PhD

University College London, London, UK
Biology of the Immune System, Allergic Reactions and Other Hypersensitivity Disorders

Matt Demczko, MD

Mitochondrial Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Hereditary Metabolic Disorders

Rebecca Dezube, MD, MHS

Johns Hopkins University
Biology of the Lungs and Airways, Symptoms of Lung Disorders, Diagnosis of Lung Disorders

Deepinder K. Dhaliwal, MD, L.Ac

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine|UPMC Eye Center|University of Pittsburgh
Refractive Disorders

Matthew D. Di Guglielmo, MD, PhD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Stool Incontinence in Children

Joel E. Dimsdale, MD

University of California, San Diego
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

James G. H. Dinulos, MD

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth|University of Connecticut
Cornification Disorders, Parasitic Skin Infections, Viral Skin Infections

James D. Douketis, MD

McMaster University|McMaster University
Lymphatic Disorders, Venous Disorders

Antonette T. Dulay, MD

Main Line Health System|Axia Women’s Health
Complications of Pregnancy

Jeffrey S. Dungan, MD

Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine
Detection of Genetic Disorders

Josephine Elia, MD

Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children|Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Mental Health Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Ashkan Emadi, MD, PhD

University of Maryland|University of Maryland School of Medicine
Leukemias

B. Mark Evers, MD

Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky|University of Kentucky Department of Surgery
Carcinoid Tumors

Stephen J. Falchek, MD

Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord

Mark A. Farber, MD, FACS

University of North Carolina|University of North Carolina Aortic Network
Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection

Abimbola Farinde, PhD, PharmD

Columbia Southern University, Orange Beach, AL
Drug Dynamics

James Fernandez, MD, PhD

Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Louis Stokes VA Medical Center, Wade Park|Cleveland Clinic
Immunodeficiency Disorders

Nowell M. Fine, MD, SM

Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary
Heart Failure

David N. Finegold, MD

University of Pittsburgh|University of Pittsburgh
Genetics

Michael B. First, MD

Columbia University|New York State Psychiatric Institute
Overview of Mental Health Care

Joseph D Forrester, MD, MSc

Stanford University|Stanford Healthcare
Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock

Marvin P. Fried, MD

Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Symptoms of Nose and Throat Disorders, Nose and Sinus Disorders

Lara A. Friel, MD, PhD

University of Texas Health Medical School at Houston, McGovern Medical School
Pregnancy Complicated by Disease

Enrica Fung, MD, MPH

Loma Linda University School of Medicine|VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Cystic Kidney Disorders

Robert Peter Gale, MD, PhD, DSC(hc)

Imperial College London|Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College
Overview of Cancer, Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

Pierluigi Gambetti, MD

Case Western Reserve University
Prion Diseases

James Garrity, MD

Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science
Biology of the Eyes, Eyelid and Tearing Disorders, Eye Socket Disorders, Optic Nerve Disorders

Mark T. Gladwin, MD

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine|Pittsburgh Heart, Lung, and Blood Vascular Medicine Institute
Pulmonary Hypertension

Stephen Gluckman, MD

Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Oluwatosin Goje, MD, MSCR

Cleveland Clinic, Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University|Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic
Vaginal Infections and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Steven A. Goldman, MD, PhD

Sana Biotechnology|University of Copenhagen Faculty of Medicine|University of Rochester Medical Center
Tumors of the Nervous System

Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD

HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente|Movement Disorders Clinic
Movement Disorders

Stuart B. Goodman, MD, PhD

Stanford University
Osteonecrosis

Jonathan Gotfried, MD

Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University|Main Line Health, Bryn Mawr, PA
Symptoms of Digestive Disorders, Diagnosis of Digestive Disorders, Gastroenteritis

Evan G. Graber, DO

Sydney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Growth and Development

Ayman Grada, MD, MS

Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine
Pressure Sores

John E. Greenlee, MD

University of Utah Health
Brain Infections, Meningitis

Renee Gresh, DO

Nemours A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Childhood Cancers

Ashley B. Grossman, MD

University of Oxford; Fellow, Green-Templeton College|St Bartholomew’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine
Adrenal Gland Disorders

Ravindu Gunatilake, MD

Valley Perinatal Services|Creighton University School of Medicine-Phoenix
Drug Use During Pregnancy

Jessica I. Gupta, MD

University of Michigan Health
Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels

James Peter Adam Hamilton, MD

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine|Johns Hopkins Medicine
Iron Overload

Margaret R. Hammerschlag, MD

State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
Chlamydial Infections and Mycoplasmas

L. Aimee Hechanova, MD

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso
Dialysis, Disorders of Kidney Tubules

Robert P. Heine, MD

Wake Forest School of Medicine|Wake Forest Baptist Health
Symptoms During Pregnancy

Bernard J. Hennessy, DDS

Texas A&M University, College of Dentistry
Symptoms of Oral and Dental Disorders, Lip and Tongue Disorders, Tooth Disorders

Jerome M. Hershman, MD, MS

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|West Los Angeles VA Medical Center and Endocrine Center, UCLA
Thyroid Gland Disorders

Martin Hertl, MD, PhD

Rush University Medical Center
Transplantation

Irvin H. Hirsch, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Biology of the Male Reproductive System, Sexual Dysfunction in Men

Kelly R. Hodges, MD

Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Pavilion for Women
Sexual Dysfunction in Women

Brian D. Hoit, MD

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine|University Hospitals Health System|University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center
Pericardial Disease and Myocarditis

Byron J. Hoogwerf, MD

Cleveland Clinic|Central Michigan University College of Medicine
The Science of Medicine and Clinical Trials

Juebin Huang, MD, PhD

Department of Neurology, University of Mississippi Medical Center
Brain Dysfunction, Delirium and Dementia

Michael C. Iannuzzi, MD, MBA

Henry Ford Hospital|GeneToBe LLC
Sarcoidosis

Talha H. Imam, MD

University of Riverside School of Medicine|Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Manuel Izquierdo, DO

Wake Forest Baptist Health
Asthma

Whitney Jackson, MD

University of Colorado School of Medicine|University of Colorado School of Medicine
Alcohol-Related Liver Disease, Blood Vessel Disorders of the Liver

Harry S. Jacob, MD, DHC

University of Minnesota Medical School|HemOnc Today
Spleen Disorders

Arif Jivan, MD, PhD

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Coronary Artery Disease

Larry E. Johnson, MD, PhD

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences|University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Minerals, Vitamins

Brian D. Johnston, Exercise Specialist

International Association of Resistance Training|Prescribed Exercise Clinics
Exercise and Fitness

David M. Joyce, MD

Moffitt Cancer Center
Bone and Joint Tumors

Michael J. Joyce, MD

Cleveland Clinic Lerner School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University
Bone and Joint Tumors

James O. Judge, MD

University of Connecticut School of Medicine
Gait Disorders in Older People

Bruce A. Kaiser, MD

Nemours/Alfred I. DuPont Hospital for Children
High Blood Pressure in Children

Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD

Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine
First Aid

Daniel B. Kaplan, PhD, LICSW

Adelphi University School of Social Work
Elder Abuse, Social Issues Affecting Older People

Kenneth M. Kaye, MD

Harvard Medical School|Brigham and Women's Hospital
Herpesvirus Infections

David M. Kaylie, MS, MD

Duke University Medical Center
Biology of the Ears, Nose, and Throat, Symptoms of Ear Disorders

Robert L. Keith, MD

Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine|Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center, VA Eastern Colorado HealthCare System
Tumors of the Lungs

Jonette E. Keri, MD, PhD

University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine|Miami VA Hospital
Treatment of Skin Disorders, Acne and Related Disorders

Bradley W. Kesser, MD

University of Virginia School of Medicine
Outer Ear Disorders

Mashal Khan, MD

Weill Cornell Medicine|NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital
Substance-Related Disorders

Leila M. Khazaeni, MD

Loma Linda University School of Medicine
Diagnosis of Eye Disorders, Cataract, Eye Disorders in Children

Charlie C. Kilpatrick, MD, MEd

Baylor College of Medicine|Baylor College of Medicine
Miscellaneous Gynecologic Abnormalities, Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)

Gary D. Klasser, DMD

Louisiana State University School of Dentistry
Temporomandibular Disorders

Mehmet Kocak, MD

Rush University Medical Center|Rush Medical College
Common Imaging Tests

Apostolos Kontzias, MD

Stony Brook University School of Medicine
Joint Disorders, Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes

Laura D Kramer, PhD

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health|School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany
Overview of Viral Infections

Sonal Kumar, MD, MPH

Weill Cornell Medical College
Hepatitis

David J. Kuter, MD, DPhil

Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Blood Disorders, Bleeding Due to Abnormal Blood Vessels, Platelet Disorders

Kara C. LaMattina, MD

Boston University School of Medicine|Boston Medical Center
Uveitis and Related Disorders

Lewis Landsberg, MD

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Abigail R. Lara, MD

University of Colorado
Environmental Lung Diseases

Christopher J. LaRosa, MD

Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Congenital Kidney Tubular Disorders

Jennie York Law, MD

University of Maryland, School of Medicine|University of Maryland School of Medicine
Leukemias

Jennifer Le, PharmD, MAS, BCPS-ID, FIDSA, FCCP, FCSHP

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego
Administration and Kinetics of Drugs

Joyce Lee, MD, MAS

University of Colorado School of Medicine
Autoimmune Disorders of the Lungs, Interstitial Lung Diseases

Tae Hoon Lee, MD

James J. Peters VA Medical Center|Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Fibrosis and Cirrhosis of the Liver

Magda Lenartowicz, MD

Trinity Hospice, Los Angeles
Prevention

John P. Leonard, MD

Weill Cornell Medicine
Lymphomas

Michael C. Levin, MD

College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan
Symptoms of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders, Diagnosis of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Disorders

Wendy S. Levinbook, MD

Hartford Dermatology Associates
Hair Disorders

Andrea R. Levine, MD

University of Maryland School of Medicine
Pulmonary Hypertension, Rehabilitation for Lung and Airway Disorders

Sharon Levy, MD, MPH

Harvard Medical School|Boston Children's Hospital
Problems in Adolescents

James L. Lewis III, MD

Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincent’s Ascension Health, Birmingham|Nephrology Associates, PC, Birmingham, AL
Acid-Base Balance, Electrolyte Balance, Parathyroid Disorders, Water Balance

Paul L. Liebert, MD

Tomah Memorial Hospital, Tomah, WI
Sports Injuries

Jane Liesveld, MD

James P. Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center
Myeloproliferative Disorders

Richard W. Light, MD

Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Pleural and Mediastinal Disorders

Christina C. Lindenmeyer, MD

Cleveland Clinic|Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University
Biology of the Liver and Gallbladder, Diagnosis of Liver, Gallbladder, and Biliary Disorders, Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders

Alexa Lindley, MD, MPH

University of Washington School of Medicine|University of Washington
Travel and Health

Sunny A. Linnebur, PharmD, BCPS, BCGP

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado
Aging and Drugs

James H. Liu, MD

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine|University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center
Endometriosis

Phillip Low, MD

College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic|Mayo Clinic
Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

Andrew M. Luks, MD

University of Washington|University of Washington
Altitude Illness

Lawrence R. Lustig, MD

Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian Hospital
Hearing Loss and Deafness, Inner Ear Disorders

Kristle Lee Lynch, MD

Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|University of Pennsylvania
Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders

Shalini S. Lynch, PharmD

University of California San Francisco School of Pharmacy
Overview of Drugs, Factors Affecting Response to Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs

Joanne Lynn, MD, MA, MS

Altarum Institute
Death and Dying

Geetha Maddukuri, MD

Saint Louis University|VA St Louis Health Care System
Symptoms of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders

James M. Madsen, MD, MPH

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD)
Mass-Casualty Weapons

Kenneth Maiese, MD

Rutgers University|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Biology of the Nervous System, Coma and Impaired Consciousness

Zubair Malik, MD

Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University|Temple University Hospital
Bezoars and Foreign Bodies of the Digestive Tract

Anna Malkina, MD

University of California, San Francisco
Kidney Failure

Brian F. Mandell, MD, PhD

Cleveland Clinic
Gout and Calcium Pyrophosphate Arthritis

Gordon Mao, MD

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Head Injuries, Spinal Injuries

Chelsea Marie, PhD

University of Virginia
Parasitic Infections: An Overview, Parasitic Infections: Cestodes (Tapeworms), Parasitic Infections: Trematodes (Flukes)

Daphne E. Smith Marsh, PharmD, BC-ADM, CDCES

University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy|University of Malta
Adverse Drug Reactions, Brand-Name and Generic Drugs

Peter Martin, MD

Weill Cornell Medicine
Lymphomas

Robert S. McKelvie, MD, PhD

Western University|McMaster University
Sports and the Heart

Jessica E. McLaughlin, MD

Medical University of South Carolina
Biology of the Female Reproductive System

Jay Mehta, MD

Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|The Children's Hospital of Pediatrics
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)

Sonia Mehta, MD

Vitreoretinal Diseases and Surgery Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Retinal Disorders

Denise Millstine, MD

Mayo Clinic
Integrative, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine

L. Brent Mitchell, MD

Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary
Abnormal Heart Rhythms

Richard T. Miyamoto, MD, MS

Indiana University School of Medicine
Middle Ear Disorders

Joel L. Moake, MD

Baylor College of Medicine|J. W. Cox Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering, Rice University
Bleeding Due to Clotting Disorders, Blood Clotting Process, Excessive Clotting

Paul K. Mohabir, MD

Stanford University School of Medicine
Surgery

Julie S. Moldenhauer, MD

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia|The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Complications of Labor and Delivery, Postpartum Care

Stephanie M. Moleski, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Peter J. Moley, MD

Hospital for Special Surgery|Weill Cornell Medical College
Low Back and Neck Pain

Richard E. Moon, MD

Duke University Medical Center|Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology
Diving and Compressed Air Injuries

John E. Morley, MB, BCh

Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Undernutrition

Sheldon R. Morris, MD, MPH

University of California San Diego
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Sam P. Most, MD

Stanford University Medical Center
Facial Injuries

Christine Moutier, MD

American Foundation For Suicide Prevention
Suicidal Behavior and Self-Injury

Ann P. Murchison, MD, MPH

Wills Eye Hospital|Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Eye Injuries

David G. Mutch, MD

Washington University School of Medicine
Fibroids

Edward A. Nardell, MD

Harvard Medical School|Brigham & Women's Hospital|T.H.Chan Harvard School of Public Health
Tuberculosis and Related Infections

Alana M. Nevares, MD

The University of Vermont Medical Center
Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue

Minhhuyen Nguyen, MD

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University
Tumors of the Digestive System

Frank O'Brien, MD

Washington University in St. Louis|Washington University School of Medicine
Kidney Filtering Disorders

Adedamola A. Ogunniyi, MD

Harbor-UCLA Medical Center|David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles
Motion Sickness

Gerald F. O’Malley, DO

Grand Strand Regional Medical Center|Sidney Kimmel School of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Poisoning, Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants

Rika O’Malley, MD

Grand Strand Medical Center
Poisoning, Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants

Victor E. Ortega, MD, PhD

Mayo Clinic Arizona
Asthma

Federico E Parodi, MD

University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection

Bhakti K. Patel, MD

University of Chicago
Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Avinash S. Patil, MD

University of Arizona College of Medicine|Valley Perinatal Services
Drug Use During Pregnancy

Richard D. Pearson, MD

University of Virginia School of Medicine
Parasitic Infections: Extraintestinal Protozoa, Parasitic Infections: Intestinal Protozoa and Microsporidia, Parasitic Infections: Nematodes (Roundworms)

Alicia R. Pekarsky, MD

State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Upstate Golisano Children's Hospital|Upstate Medical University/Golisano Children’s Hospital
Child Neglect and Abuse

Daniel M. Peraza, MD

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth University
Blistering Diseases

Cory Perugino, DO

Massachusetts General Hospital|Harvard Medical School
IgG4-Related Disease

Frank Pessler, MD, PhD

Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research
Bone Disorders in Children, Connective Tissue Disorders in Children

William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD

University of Virginia School of Medicine|University of Virginia
Parasitic Infections: An Overview, Parasitic Infections: Cestodes (Tapeworms), Parasitic Infections: Trematodes (Flukes), Rickettsial and Related Infections

Katharine A. Phillips, MD

Weill Cornell Medical College|New York-Presbyterian Hospital|Albert Medical School of Brown University
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

Tania J. Phillips, MD

Boston University School of Medicine
Pressure Sores

JoAnn V. Pinkerton, MD

University of Virginia Health System
Menopause, Menstrual Disorders and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding

Michael Joseph Pistoria, MEng, DO

Lehigh Valley Hospital - Coordinated Health
Hospital Care, Medical Decision Making

Salvador E. Portugal, DO

New York University, Robert I. Grossman School of Medicine|NYU Langone Orthopedic Center
Rehabilitation

Nina N. Powell-Hamilton, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Overview of Birth Defects, Chromosome and Gene Abnormalities

Glenn M. Preminger, MD

Duke Comprehensive Kidney Stone Center|Duke University Medical Center
Biology of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract, Obstruction of the Urinary Tract, Stones in the Urinary Tract

Judith J. Prochaska, PhD, MPH

Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University
Tobacco Use

Levi D. Procter, MD

Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine
Low Blood Pressure and Shock

Vishnu Priya Pulipati, MD

Warren Clinic Endocrinology
Cholesterol Disorders

Christopher P. Raab, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Miscellaneous Disorders in Infants and Young Children

Ronald Rabinowitz, MD

University of Rochester Medical Center|Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong
Birth Defects of the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Pedro T. Ramirez, MD

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Cancers of the Female Reproductive System

Anupama K. Rao, MD

Rush University Medical Center
Heart Tumors

Robert W. Rebar, MD

Western Michigan University Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine
Infertility

Wingfield E. Rehmus, MD, MPH

University of British Columbia|BC Children’s Hospital, Division of Dermatology
Bacterial Skin Infections

Sanjay G. Revankar, MD

Wayne State University School of Medicine
Fungal Infections

Douglas J. Rhee, MD

University Hospitals/Case Western Reserve University
Glaucoma

David Richards, MD

University of Colorado School of Medicine|Denver Health Medical Center
Drowning

Melvin I. Roat, MD, FACS

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Wills Eye Hospital
Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders, Corneal Disorders

Beryl J. Rosenstein, MD

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Cystic Fibrosis

Laurence Z. Rubenstein, MD, MPH

University of Oklahoma College of Medicine|University of California, Los Angeles
Falls in Older People

Michael Rubin, MDCM

New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center
Cranial Nerve Disorders, Craniocervical Junction Disorders, Peripheral Nerve and Related Disorders, Spinal Cord Disorders, Muscular Dystrophies and Related Disorders

Sean R. Rudnick, MD

Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Porphyrias

Thomas M. Ruenger, MD, PhD

Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany|Lahey Hospital and Medical Center
Itching and Dermatitis

Atenodoro R. Ruiz, Jr., MD

The Medical City, Pasig City, Philippines
Biology of the Digestive System, Malabsorption

Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME

University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
Electrical and Lightning Injuries

J. Mark Ruscin, PharmD, FCCP, BCPS

Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy
Aging and Drugs

Charles Sabatino, JD

American Bar Association|Georgetown University Law Center
Legal and Ethical Issues

Birendra P. Sah, MD, FCCP

Upstate Medical University
Sarcoidosis

Gloria Salvo, MD

MD Anderson Cancer Center
Cancers of the Female Reproductive System

Vaishali Sanchorawala, MD

Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center
Amyloidosis

Christopher Sanford, MD, MPH, DTM&H

University of Washington
Travel and Health

Ravindra Sarode, MD

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Biology of Blood, Blood Transfusion

Clarence T. Sasaki, MD

Yale University School of Medicine
Laryngeal Disorders

Margot L. Savoy, MD, MPH

Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University|American Academy of Family Physicians
Immunization

Bradley A. Schiff, MD

Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers

Shira A. Schlesinger, MD, MPH

Harbor-UCLA Medical Center|Harbor-UCLA Medical Center|Newport Beach Fire Department
Cardiac Arrest and CPR

Steven Schmitt, MD

Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Cleveland Clinic
Bone and Joint Infections

Richard J. Schwab, MD

University of Pennsylvania, Division of Sleep Medicine|Penn Sleep Center
Sleep Disorders

Sanjay Sethi, MD

University at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences
Abscess in the Lungs, Acute Bronchitis, Pneumonia

Udayan K. Shah, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders in Children

Laura Shane-McWhorter, PharmD

University of Utah College of Pharmacy
Dietary Supplements and Vitamins

Michael J. Shea, MD

Michigan Medicine at the University of Michigan
Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels, Symptoms of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders, Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Patrick J. Shenot, MD

Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Disorders of Urination, Penile and Testicular Disorders

Stephen D. Silberstein, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Headaches

Michael J. Smith, MD, MSCE

Duke University School of Medicine
Vaccination of Children

David Spiegel, MD

Stanford University School of Medicine|Stanford University School of Medicine
Dissociative Disorders

Jason Stankiewicz, MD

University of Maryland Medical Center
Rehabilitation for Lung and Airway Disorders

Richard G. Stefanacci, DO, MGH, MBA

Thomas Jefferson University, Jefferson College of Population Health
The Aging Body, Aging and Quality of Life

Dan J. Stein, MD, PhD

University of Cape Town
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

Trevor Steinbach, MD

University of Colorado
Bronchiectasis and Atelectasis

David R. Steinberg, MD

Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Hand Disorders

Jan J. Stokosa, CP

American Prosthetics Institute, Ltd|Stokosa Prosthetic Clinic
Limb Prosthetics

Kingman P. Strohl, MD

Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University|Louis Stokes Cleveland DVA Medical Center
Sleep Apnea

Tisha Suboc, MD

Rush University
Cardiomyopathy

Stephen Brian Sulkes, MD

Golisano Children’s Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Behavioral Problems in Children, Learning and Developmental Disorders

Rosalyn Sulyanto, DMD, MS

Boston Children's Hospital|Harvard School of Dental Medicine
Biology of the Mouth and Teeth

Ranya N. Sweis, MD, MS

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Coronary Artery Disease

Carol Tamminga, MD

UT Southwestern Medical Dallas
Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

David Tanen, MD

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
Heat Disorders

Victor F. Tapson, MD

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center|Clinical Research for the Women’s Guild Lung Institute
Pulmonary Embolism

Koon K. Teo, MBBCh, PhD

McMaster University
Peripheral Arterial Disease

Mary Territo, MD

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
White Blood Cell Disorders

Brenda L. Tesini, MD

University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
COVID-19, Enteroviruses, Pox Viruses, Respiratory Viruses, Infections in Newborns, Viral Infections in Infants and Children

George Thanassoulis, MD, MSc

McGill University|McGill University Health Center
Atherosclerosis

The Manual's Editorial Staff,

Pronunciations, Weights and Measures, Common Medical Tests, Anatomical Drawings, Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders, Heart Failure, Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection, Atherosclerosis, Coronary Artery Disease, Venous Disorders, Cardiomyopathy, High Blood Pressure, Peripheral Arterial Disease, Low Blood Pressure and Shock, Sports and the Heart, Abnormal Heart Rhythms, Endocarditis, Heart Valve Disorders, Lymphatic Disorders, Pericardial Disease, Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels, Acute Bronchitis, Sleep Apnea, Tumors of the Lungs, Asthma, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Embolism (PE), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Sarcoidosis, Diagnosis of Lung Disorders, Environmental Lung Diseases, Pleural and Mediastinal Disorders, Biology of the Lungs and Airways, Pulmonary Hypertension, Mouth and Throat Disorders, Inner Ear Disorders, Outer Ear Disorders, Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers, Middle Ear Disorders, Hearing Loss and Deafness, Biology of the Ears, Nose, and Throat, Nose and Sinus Disorders, Cranial Nerve Disorders, Dementia, Headaches, Stroke (CVA), Movement Disorders, Seizure Disorders, Symptoms of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders, Meningitis, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Disorders, Sleep Disorders, Peripheral Nerve Disorders, Spinal Cord Disorders, Diagnosis of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders, Brain Infections, Coma and Impaired Consciousness, Tumors of the Nervous System, Pain, Biology of the Nervous System, Suicidal Behavior and Self-Injury, Eating Disorders, Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders, Mood Disorders, Schizophrenia, Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, Personality Disorders, Drug Use and Abuse, Overview of Mental Health Care, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders, Gastroenteritis, Anal and Rectal Disorders, Diverticular Disease, Gastrointestinal Emergencies, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease, Pancreatitis, Diagnosis of Digestive Disorders, Malabsorption, Tumors of the Digestive System, Biology of the Digestive System, Alcohol-Related Liver Disease, Fibrosis and Cirrhosis of the Liver, Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders, Hepatitis, Manifestations of Liver Disease, Tumors of the Liver, Biology of the Liver and Gallbladder, Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism, Electrolyte Balance, Cholesterol Disorders, Water Balance, Thyroid Gland Disorders, Adrenal Gland Disorders, Pituitary Gland Disorders, Itching and Dermatitis, Noncancerous Skin Growths, Psoriasis and Scaling Disorders, Skin Cancers, Pressure Sores, Bacterial Skin Infections, Sunlight and Skin Damage, Viral Skin Infections, Parasitic Skin Infections, Fungal Skin Infections, Hair Disorders, Hypersensitivity and Reactive Skin Disorders, Acne and Related Disorders, Allergic Reactions and Other Hypersensitivity Disorders, Biology of the Immune System, Immunodeficiency Disorders, Bacterial Infections: Overview, Bacterial Infections: Anaerobic Bacteria, COVID-19, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Immunization, Herpesvirus Infections, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection, Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock, Biology of Infectious Disease, Arboviruses, Arenaviruses, and Filoviruses, Overview of Viral Infections, Tuberculosis and Leprosy, Parasitic Infections: Extraintestinal Protozoa, Parasitic Infections: Cestodes (Tapeworms), Parasitic Infections: Intestinal Protozoa and Microsporidia, Parasitic Infections: Nematodes (Roundworms), Parasitic Infections: Trematodes (Flukes), Bacterial Infections: Gram-Negative Bacteria, Bacterial Infections: Spirochetes, Bacterial Infections: Gram-Positive Bacteria, Respiratory Viruses, Enteroviruses, Fungal Infections, Cataract, Glaucoma, Retinal Disorders, Symptoms of Eye Disorders, Eyelid and Tearing Disorders, Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders, Corneal Disorders, Temporomandibular Disorders, Periodontal Diseases, Tooth Disorders, Bone Disorders in Children, Cystic Fibrosis, Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders in Children, Learning and Developmental Disorders, Neurologic Disorders in Children, Vaccination of Children, Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families, Respiratory Disorders in Infants and Children, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Children, Hormonal Disorders in Children, Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children, Digestive Disorders in Children, Viral Infections in Infants and Children, Chromosomal and Genetic Abnormalities, Miscellaneous Disorders in Infants and Young Children, Problems in Adolescents, Gastrointestinal (GI) and Liver Problems in Newborns, Behavioral Problems in Children, Mental Health Disorders in Children and Adolescents, Lung and Breathing Problems in Newborns, Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord, Connective Tissue Disorders in Children, Eye Disorders in Children, General Problems in Newborns, Birth Defects of the Digestive Tract, Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children, Birth Defects of the Heart, Childhood Cancers, Muscular Dystrophies and Related Disorders, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Hereditary Metabolic Disorders, Bites and Stings, Burns, Motion Sickness, Poisoning, Head Injuries, Injuries to the Eye, Heat Disorders, Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries, Cold Injuries, Fractures, Spinal Injuries, Mass Casualty Weapons, Altitude Sickness, Osteoporosis, Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Hand Disorders, Gout, Neck and Low Back Pain, Joint Disorders, Foot Problems, Vasculitic Disorders, Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue, Muscle, Bursa, and Tendon Disorders, Osteonecrosis, Bone and Joint Infections, Paget Disease of Bone, Biology of Muscles and Bones, Stones in the Urinary Tract, Urinary Tract Infections (UTI), Kidney Failure, Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract, Disorders of Urination, Biology of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract, Blood Vessel Disorders of the Kidneys, Obstruction of the Urinary Tract, Disorders of Kidney Tubules, Cystic Kidney Disorders, Lymphomas, Leukemias, Blood Transfusion, Bleeding Due to Clotting Disorders, Myeloproliferative Disorders, Excessive Clotting, Plasma Cell Disorders, Blood Clotting Process, Anemia, White Blood Cell Disorders, Platelet Disorders, Biology of Blood, Benign Prostate Disorders, Sexual Dysfunction in Men, Biology of the Male Reproductive System, Drug Use During Pregnancy, Endometriosis, Family Planning, Fibroids, High-Risk Pregnancy, Menopause, Symptoms of Gynecologic Disorders, Vaginal Infections and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Complications of Pregnancy, Complications of Labor and Delivery, Breast Disorders, Cancers of the Female Reproductive System, Menstrual Disorders and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding, Pregnancy Complicated by Disease, Infertility, Normal Pregnancy, Postpartum Care, Normal Labor and Delivery, Biology of the Female Reproductive System, Common Imaging Tests, Tobacco Use, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Surgery, Falls, Overview of Cancer, Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

Danielle Tholey, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Manifestations of Liver Disease, Drugs and the Liver, Tumors of the Liver

David R. Thomas, MD

St. Louis University School of Medicine
Nutritional Support

Andrea D. Thompson, MD, PhD

University of Michigan
Symptoms of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Dylan Tierney, MD, MPH

Harvard Medical School|Brigham and Women's Hospital
Tuberculosis and Related Infections

James T. Ubertalli, DMD

Hingham, MA
Periodontal Diseases

Nimish Vakil, MD

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease

Philbert Yuan Van, MD

US Army Reserve|Oregon Health and Science University
Abdominal Injuries

Maria T. Vazquez-Pertejo, MD, FACP

Wellington Regional Medical Center
Diagnosis of Infectious Disease

M. Cristina Victorio, MD

Akron Children's Hospital|Northeast Ohio Medical University
Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children, Neurologic Disorders in Children

Alexandra Villa-Forte, MD, MPH

Cleveland Clinic
The Human Body, Biology of the Musculoskeletal System, Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Diagnosis of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Vasculitic Disorders

Michael N. Wajdowicz, DDS

Veterans Administration|Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Urgent Dental Problems

Aaron E. Walfish, MD

Mount Sinai Medical Center
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)

B. Timothy Walsh, MD

College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University|New York State Psychiatric Institute
Eating Disorders

Andrew W. Walter, MS, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Blood Problems in Newborns

Michael R. Wasserman, MD

California Association of Long Term Care Medicine
Making the Most of Health Care, Nonspecific Symptoms

James C. Watson, MD

Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science
Pain

Geoffrey A. Weinberg, MD

Golisano Children’s Hospital|University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Children

Thomas G. Weiser, MD, MPH

Stanford University School of Medicine
Chest Injuries

Gregory L. Wells, MD

Ada West Dermatology and Dermatopathology|Idaho College of Osteopathic Medicine
Skin Cancers

Brian J. Werth, PharmD

University of Washington School of Pharmacy
Antibiotics

Kendrick Alan Whitney, DPM

Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine
Foot Problems

Robert A. Wise, MD

Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center|Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Adrienne Youdim, MD

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|Cedars Sinai Medical Center|Dehl Nutrition
Overview of Nutrition, Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome

William F. Young, Jr, MD, MSc

Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Biology of the Endocrine System

Thomas M. Yuill, PhD

University of Wisconsin-Madison
Arboviruses, Arenaviruses, Filoviruses

Zhiwei Zhang, MD

Loma Linda University School of Medicine|VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Blood Vessel Disorders of the Kidneys

Mark Zimmerman, MD

Rhode Island Hospital|Brown University School of Medicine
Personality Disorders