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Overview of Gastritis

By

Nimish Vakil

, MD, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

Last full review/revision Jun 2021| Content last modified Jun 2021
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Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa caused by any of several conditions, including infection (Helicobacter pylori), drugs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol), stress, and autoimmune phenomena (atrophic gastritis). Many cases are asymptomatic, but dyspepsia Dyspepsia Dyspepsia is a sensation of pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen; it often is recurrent. It may be described as indigestion, gassiness, early satiety, postprandial fullness, gnawing, or burning... read more and gastrointestinal bleeding Overview of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can originate anywhere from the mouth to the anus and can be overt or occult. The manifestations depend on the location and rate of bleeding. (See also Varices... read more sometimes occur. Diagnosis is by endoscopy. Treatment is directed at the cause but often includes acid suppression and, for Helicobacter pylori infection, antibiotics.

Gastritis can be classified in several ways:

Acute gastritis is characterized by polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration of the mucosa of the antrum and body.

Chronic gastritis implies some degree of atrophy (with loss of function of the mucosa) or metaplasia. It predominantly involves the antrum (with subsequent loss of G cells and decreased gastrin secretion) or the corpus (with loss of oxyntic glands, leading to reduced acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor).

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