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Gastroenteritis in Children

By

Jaime Belkind-Gerson

, MD, MSc, University of Colorado

Reviewed/Revised Nov 2023
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Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the digestive tract that results in vomiting, diarrhea, or both and is sometimes accompanied by fever or abdominal cramps.

  • Gastroenteritis is usually caused by a viral, bacterial, or parasitic infection.

  • The infection causes a combination of vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and poor appetite, which can lead to dehydration.

  • The child’s symptoms and history of exposure help the doctor confirm the diagnosis.

  • Gastroenteritis is best prevented by encouraging children and their caretakers to wash their hands and teaching them to avoid improperly stored foods and contaminated water.

  • Fluids and rehydrating solutions are given, but sometimes children need to see a doctor, and some need to be hospitalized.

About 3 to 5 billion episodes occur worldwide each year, most commonly in children under 5 years of age who live in countries where children are more vulnerable and care is often not easy to access. Worldwide, about 500,000 children under age 5 years die each year of diarrhea caused by gastroenteritis.

In countries where children are well nourished and have access to excellent medical care (most importantly, hydrating fluids given by vein [intravenously] when needed), the consequences are not as severe. However, acute gastroenteritis is still a frequent problem in the United States. Each year in the United States, gastroenteritis causes about 1.5 million doctor visits, 200,000 hospital admissions, and 300 deaths in children.

Causes of Gastroenteritis in Children

Most gastroenteritis is caused by

Rarer causes of gastroenteritis include

Viruses

Viruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in the United States. Four categories of viruses cause most gastroenteritis. The two most common are

Most other viral cases are caused by astrovirus or adenovirus.

Children usually contract viral gastroenteritis from other children who have had it or who have been exposed to it, such as those in child care centers, schools, and other crowded settings. Viral gastroenteritis is very contagious and spreads particularly easily from child to child.

Fecal-oral transmission is the usual way that viral gastroenteritis spreads. Fecal-oral means that viruses in the diarrhea stool (feces) from an infected person are taken into the mouth of another person. Of course, people do not ingest stool directly. Instead, children with diarrhea and/or their caretakers may have some infected stool on their hands (particularly when they do not thoroughly wash their hands). Then any objects they touch (such as a diaper, a toy, or food) also become contaminated with infected stool. Other children who touch that object and then put their hands and fingers in and near their mouth may get infected by the virus. Viral gastroenteritis can also be spread by sneezing, coughing, and spitting.

Norovirus Norovirus Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small and large intestines. It can be caused by the norovirus. Norovirus is very contagious and spreads from person to person... read more Norovirus Gastroenteritis has become the most common cause of gastroenteritis in all age groups, including children, in the United States since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. This virus commonly affects children between 6 months and 18 months of age. Infections occur year-round, but most occur from November to April. Most people are infected after swallowing contaminated food or water. Because norovirus is highly contagious, infection can easily be spread from person to person. Norovirus causes most cases of gastroenteritis epidemics that occur on cruise ships and in nursing homes.

Rotavirus Rotavirus Infection Rotavirus is a common and very contagious virus that causes vomiting and diarrhea. Rotavirus is a viral infection of the digestive tract that can cause severe dehydration. Typical symptoms include... read more Rotavirus Infection is the most common cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea among infants and children worldwide. The frequency has decreased since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines Rotavirus Vaccine The rotavirus vaccine is a live-virus vaccine that helps protect against gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus, which causes vomiting, diarrhea, and, if symptoms persist, dehydration and organ... read more . Rotavirus usually affects infants and toddlers 3 to 15 months of age. It is highly contagious. Most infections are spread by fecal-oral transmission. Infected infants may spread the infection to adults. In temperate climates, rotavirus infections are most common in the winter and spring. In the United States, before rotavirus vaccination became available, a wave of rotavirus illness would begin in the Southwest in December and end in the Northeast in April or May. Now, the illness occurs less predictably and may occur year round.

Astrovirus can infect people of all ages but usually infects infants and young children. In temperate climates, infection is most common in winter months, and in tropical regions, infection is more common in summer months. It is spread by fecal-oral transmission.

Adenovirus most commonly affects children under the age of 2 years. Infections occur year-round and increase slightly in the summer. The infection is spread by fecal-oral transmission as well as by respiratory droplets.

Bacteria

The bacteria that most commonly cause gastroenteritis include

Children can contract bacterial gastroenteritis by

  • Touching or eating contaminated foods, particularly raw or inadequately cooked meats, poultry, or eggs

  • Eating contaminated shellfish

  • Drinking unpasteurized milk or juice

  • Touching animals that carry certain bacteria

  • Swallowing contaminated water, such as from wells, streams, and swimming pools

Bacteria may grow in many types of foods that have been left out and not refrigerated (potential problem situations include buffets and picnics). Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureus Infections Staphylococcus aureus is the most dangerous of all of the many common staphylococcal bacteria. These gram-positive, sphere-shaped (coccal) bacteria (see figure ) often cause skin infections... read more <i >Staphylococcus aureus</i> Infections bacteria in contaminated food may secrete a toxin that causes sudden vomiting and diarrhea. Gastroenteritis contracted from food containing microorganisms or bacterial toxins is sometimes called food poisoning Overview of Food Poisoning Food poisoning results from eating a plant or animal that contains a toxin. The poisoning occurs after ingesting poisonous species of mushrooms or plants or contaminated fish or shellfish. The... read more .

Children can contract gastroenteritis by swallowing or swimming in contaminated water, such as from wells, streams, oceans, lakes, rivers, water parks, splash pads, hot tubs, and swimming pools (called swimming-related illnesses).

Infection with the bacteria Clostridioides difficile may occur in children who have taken antibiotics or who have finished a course of antibiotics in the last 6 to 10 weeks (see Clostridioides (formerly Clostridiumdifficile–Induced Colitis Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile–Induced Colitis Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile)–induced colitis is an inflammation of the large intestine (colon) that results in diarrhea. The inflammation is caused by toxin produced... read more ) because the antibiotics can treat normal bacteria in the digestive tract that help keep the illness-causing bacteria in check. Some children may develop Clostridioides difficile infection after being in the hospital, and cases can occur in communities. Clostridioides difficile is now probably the most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the United States.

Parasites

Chemical toxins

Medications

Many medications cause diarrhea. Children who are given (or who accidentally ingest) certain medications (such as antibiotics or antacids) may develop gastroenteritis (see sidebar Gastroenteritis as a Side Effect of Medications Gastroenteritis as a Side Effect of Drugs Gastroenteritis as a Side Effect of Drugs ).

Gastroenteritis as a Side Effect of Medications

Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea are common side effects of many medications. Common offenders include

Recognizing that a medication is causing gastroenteritis can be difficult. In mild cases, a doctor may advise a person to stop taking the medication and later start taking it again. If the symptoms subside when the person stops taking the medication and resume when the person starts taking it again, then the medication may be the cause of the gastrointestinal symptoms. In severe cases of gastroenteritis, a doctor may instruct the person to stop taking the medication permanently.

Symptoms of Gastroenteritis in Children

Symptoms of gastroenteritis are usually a combination of

  • Vomiting

  • Diarrhea

  • Abdominal cramps

  • Fever

  • Poor appetite

The most common symptoms of gastroenteritis, regardless of cause, are vomiting and diarrhea. Gastroenteritis resulting from a viral or bacterial infection can also cause fever. Abdominal pain is also common.

Gastroenteritis caused by viruses

Viruses cause watery diarrhea. Stools rarely contain mucus or blood.

Rotavirus may last 5 to 7 days in infants and young children. Vomiting occurs in most children, and some have fever. The diarrhea is watery but does not contain blood. The diarrhea is more likely in children to cause severe dehydration Dehydration in Children Dehydration is loss of water from the body, usually caused by vomiting and/or diarrhea. Dehydration occurs when there is significant loss of body water and, to varying amounts, electrolytes... read more and even death.

Norovirus causes more vomiting than diarrhea in children and lasts 1 to 3 days. Children have abdominal cramps and may have fever, headache, and muscle aches.

Adenovirus causes mild vomiting 1 to 2 days after diarrhea starts. The diarrhea can last 1 to 2 weeks.

Astrovirus symptoms are similar to a mild rotavirus infection.

Gastroenteritis caused by bacteria

Bacteria are likely to cause fever and bloody diarrhea and some types cause abdominal cramps. Certain kinds of bacteria, such as some strains of E. coli and Shigella, produce toxins that can cause a complication called hemolytic-uremic syndrome Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS) Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a serious disorder that usually occurs in children and involves the formation of small blood clots throughout the body that block the flow of blood to vital... read more . In this syndrome, red blood cells are destroyed (called hemolysis), and kidney failure occurs, causing toxic substances to build up in the blood (called uremia). This complication is a common cause of chronic kidney disease Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic kidney disease is a slowly progressive (months to years) decline in the kidneys’ ability to filter metabolic waste products from the blood. Major causes are diabetes and high blood pressure... read more in children.

Gastroenteritis caused by parasites

Parasites typically cause diarrhea that may last for a long time and may cause diarrhea that comes and goes. The diarrhea is usually not bloody. Children may be very tired and lose weight when they have long-lasting diarrhea caused by a parasitic infection.

Complications of gastroenteritis

The most common complication of severe gastroenteritis is dehydration Dehydration in Children Dehydration is loss of water from the body, usually caused by vomiting and/or diarrhea. Dehydration occurs when there is significant loss of body water and, to varying amounts, electrolytes... read more (too little fluid in the body), which occurs when a lot of fluid is lost in vomit and stool. Children who are slightly dehydrated are thirsty, but seriously dehydrated children become listless, irritable, or sluggish (lethargic).

Infants are much more likely than older children to become dehydrated and develop serious side effects. Infants who are dehydrated need medical care right away.

Danger signs of dehydration in infants that require immediate medical care include the following:

  • The soft spot on the head is sunken.

  • The eyes are sunken.

  • There are no tears when they cry.

  • The mouth is dry.

  • They are not producing much urine.

  • They have reduced alertness and energy (lethargy).

However, it can be hard to tell how much urine diapered children who are having frequent watery stools are producing. It is easier to identify a decrease in the passage of urine and excessive thirst in older children.

Diagnosis of Gastroenteritis in Children

  • Symptoms, the child's history, and a physical examination

  • Sometimes tests on stool

Did You Know...

  • Worldwide, about 500,000 children under age 5 years die each year of diarrhea caused by gastroenteritis.

A doctor bases the diagnosis of gastroenteritis on the child’s symptoms and on the parents’ responses to questions about what the child has been exposed to.

The diagnosis of gastroenteritis is usually obvious from the symptoms alone, but the cause often is not. Sometimes other family members have recently been ill with similar symptoms or the child has been in contact with certain animals. Other times, gastroenteritis can be traced to contaminated water or inadequately cooked, spoiled, or contaminated food, such as raw seafood or mayonnaise left out of the refrigerator too long. Recent travel, especially to certain foreign countries, and recent antibiotic use may give doctors clues to the cause as well.

Diagnostic tests are not usually needed because most forms of gastroenteritis last a short time. However, if the symptoms are severe or last for more than 48 hours, stool samples may be examined in a laboratory for white blood cells and bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Blood tests may be done as well to look for signs of infection or complications.

Treatment of Gastroenteritis in Children

  • Fluids and rehydration solutions

  • Rarely antibiotics for certain infections

Usually the only treatment needed for gastroenteritis is getting bed rest and drinking an adequate amount of fluids.

Once a child has gastroenteritis, parents should monitor their child’s hydration status. Medications that stop diarrhea or antibiotics might be given but only in certain specific situations under the guidance of a doctor.

Rehydration

Children should be encouraged to drink fluids even if just in small, frequent amounts. Infants should continue to breastfeed or drink formula in addition to an oral electrolyte solution (oral rehydration solution Treatment Dehydration is loss of water from the body, usually caused by vomiting and/or diarrhea. Dehydration occurs when there is significant loss of body water and, to varying amounts, electrolytes... read more —available as powders and liquids in pharmacies and some grocery stores). Juice, soda, carbonated beverages, teas, sports drinks, and beverages containing caffeine should not be given to infants and young children. These drinks may contain too much sugar, which can worsen diarrhea, and contain too few salts (electrolytes), which are needed to replace those the body has lost. For adolescents, sports drinks are preferable to juice and soda because of their lower sugar content, but they still have lower amounts of electrolytes than oral electrolyte solutions. Plain water is not ideal for treating dehydration in children of any age because there are no salts in plain water.

Children who are vomiting should be given frequent small amounts of fluid to help prevent dehydration. Parents should offer the child a few sips of a liquid. If the liquid is not vomited, the sips are repeated every 10 or 15 minutes, increasing the amount given to an ounce or two after an hour or so and increased as tolerated. These larger amounts can be given less often, about every hour. Liquids are absorbed very quickly, so if the child vomits more than 10 minutes after drinking, most of the liquid has been absorbed and the liquids should be continued. The amount of liquid to give a child within a 24-hour period depends on the child’s age and weight but generally should be about 1½ to 2½ ounces of liquid for each pound the child weighs. If the child’s vomiting or diarrhea lessens, parents may try feeding a more normal diet the next day. Electrolyte solutions should not be continued alone for longer than 24 hours because of potential problems associated with inadequate nutritional intake.

Children who have diarrhea but little vomiting should get extra fluid to make up for the fluid lost in the diarrhea. But, unlike children with vomiting, they may be given larger amounts of fluid at a time and they are fed their normal diet. However, if the child has significant diarrhea, consumption of dairy products (which contain lactose) should be reduced. Severe gastroenteritis may decrease the child’s ability to absorb lactose, resulting in even more diarrhea.

Children who cannot keep down even sips of liquid or who have signs of severe dehydration (such as lethargy, dry mouth, lack of tears, and no urine for 6 hours or more) are in danger and should see a doctor immediately. Children who do not have these signs should see a doctor if symptoms last more than 1 day. If the dehydration is severe, the doctor may give the child fluids by vein (intravenously).

Medications

Antidiarrheal medications such as loperamide should not be given to children under 18 years of age.

Antibiotics are of no value when a viral infection is the cause of gastroenteritis. Doctors give antibiotics only when gastroenteritis has been caused by specific bacteria that can be treated by antibiotics (such as Shigella or Campylobacter).

Sometimes, an antibiotic such as metronidazole or vancomycin is given for gastroenteritis caused by Clostridioides difficile.

Certain medications (such as metronidazole and nitazoxanide) may be given for a parasitic infection.

Probiotics

Probiotics are organisms such as bacteria that are naturally found in the body and promote the growth of good bacteria. They are also in foods and can be taken as supplements.

Probiotics, such as lactobacillus (typically present in yogurt), may slightly shorten the duration of diarrhea (perhaps by a day) if people begin taking them soon after the illness starts. However, probiotics probably do not prevent more serious consequences of gastroenteritis, such as the need for intravenous fluids or for hospitalization.

Prevention of Gastroenteritis in Children

Children who are old enough should be taught to wash their hands and to avoid improperly stored foods and contaminated water. A good general guideline is to keep cold foods cold and hot foods hot. Food placed out for consumption should be consumed within an hour.

Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Breast milk is the ideal food for newborns and infants. Although babies may be fed breast milk or formula, the World Health Organization (WHO) and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend... read more Breastfeeding is another simple and effective way to help prevent gastroenteritis in newborns and infants. Breastfed infants have lower rates of gastroenteritis compared to formula-fed infants.

For infants who are bottle-fed, caregivers should wash their hands thoroughly with soap and water before preparing bottles. Caregivers should also wash their hands thoroughly after changing diapers. Diaper-changing areas should be regularly disinfected with a freshly prepared solution of household bleach (¼ cup bleach diluted in 1 gallon of water). Children with diarrhea should not return to child care centers until their symptoms are gone. Children infected with Shigella or E. coli that causes bloody diarrhea should also have two negative stool tests before they are allowed to return to the center.

Parents can help prevent dehydration by encouraging their child to drink fluids even if just in small, frequent amounts.

Infants and children with a weakened immune system should not touch reptiles, birds, or amphibians because these animals typically carry Salmonella bacteria, and infection is more severe in these children.

Parents can prevent swimming-related illnesses by not allowing their children to swim in public water if they have diarrhea. Children who wear diapers should be checked frequently for stool and changed in an area that is not near the water. Parents should teach their children to avoid swallowing water when they swim.

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Generic Name Select Brand Names
Anti-Diarrheal, Imodium A-D, Imodium A-D EZ Chews , K-Pek II
Flagyl, Flagyl ER, Flagyl RTU, LIKMEZ, MetroCream, MetroGel, MetroGel Vaginal, MetroLotion, Noritate, NUVESSA, Nydamax, Rosadan, Rozex, Vandazole, Vitazol
FIRVANQ, Vancocin, Vancocin Powder, VANCOSOL
Alinia
Acidophilus, Acidophilus Gold Extra Strength, BioGaia, Culturelle, Culturelle Health & Wellness, Culturelle Health & Wellness Vegetarian, Culturelle Kids, Culturelle Kids Probiotic, Culturelle Kids Pro-well Probiotics, Culturelle Kids Purely Probiotic, Culturelle Kids Regularity, Culturelle Probiotics, Culturelle Probiotics Health & Wellness, Culturelle Probiotics Total Balance, Florajen, Floranex Granules, Lacto Freedom , Mega Probiotic, NewFlora, PROBACAP, Probiotic, Probiotic Acidophilus, REJUVAFLOR, RENEWAFLOR, UpSpring DUAL
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