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Common Cold


Brenda L. Tesini

, MD, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

Last full review/revision Mar 2021| Content last modified Mar 2021
Click here for the Professional Version
Topic Resources

The common cold is a viral infection of the lining of the nose, sinuses, and throat.

  • Many different viruses cause colds.

  • Usually, colds are spread when a person's hands come in contact with nasal secretions from an infected person.

  • Colds often start with a scratchy or sore throat or discomfort in the nose, followed by sneezing, a runny nose, a cough, and a general feeling of illness.

  • Doctors base the diagnosis on symptoms.

  • Good hygiene, including frequent hand washing, is the best way to prevent colds.

  • Rest, decongestants, acetaminophen, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen) can help relieve symptoms.

Common colds are among the most common illnesses. Many different viruses (rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, coronaviruses, and human metapneumoviruses) cause colds, but rhinoviruses (of which there are more than 100 subtypes) cause most colds. Colds caused by rhinoviruses occur more commonly in the spring and fall. Other viruses cause common coldlike illnesses at other times of the year.

Colds spread mainly when people’s hands come in contact with nasal secretions from an infected person. These secretions contain cold viruses. When people then touch their mouth, nose, or eyes, the viruses gain entry to the body and cause a cold. Less often, colds are spread when people breathe air containing droplets that were coughed or sneezed out by an infected person. A cold is most contagious during the first 1 or 2 days after symptoms develop.

Susceptibility to colds is not increased by any of the following:

  • Becoming chilled

  • General health and eating habits

  • Having an abnormality of the nose or throat (such as enlarged tonsils or adenoids)

Did You Know...

  • Becoming chilled does not cause colds or make people more likely to get a cold.

Symptoms of Common Cold

Cold symptoms start 1 to 3 days after infection. Usually, the first symptom is a scratchy or sore throat or discomfort in the nose. Later, people start sneezing, have a runny nose, and feel mildly ill. Fever is not common, but a mild fever may occur at the beginning of the cold. At first, secretions from the nose are watery and clear and can be annoyingly plentiful, but eventually, they become thicker, opaque, yellow-green, and less plentiful. Many people also develop a mild cough. Symptoms usually disappear in 4 to 10 days, although the cough often lasts into the second week.

Complications may prolong the disease. Rhinovirus infection often triggers asthma attacks in people with asthma. Some people develop bacterial infections of the middle ear (otitis media) or sinuses (sinusitis). These infections develop because congestion in the nose blocks the normal drainage of those areas, allowing bacteria to grow in collections of blocked secretions.

Did You Know...

  • Antibiotics are useless in treating colds.

Diagnosis of Common Cold

  • A doctor's evaluation

Doctors are usually able to diagnose a cold based on the typical symptoms. A high fever, severe headache, rash, difficulty breathing, or chest pain suggests that the infection is not a simple cold.

Laboratory tests are not usually needed to diagnose a cold. If complications are suspected, doctors may order blood tests and x-rays.

Prevention of Common Cold

Because so many different viruses cause colds and because each virus changes slightly over time, an effective vaccine has not yet been developed.

The best preventive measure is practicing good hygiene. Because many cold viruses are spread through contact with the secretions of an infected person, the following measures can help:

  • People with cold symptoms and people in their household and workplace should wash their hands frequently.

  • Sneezing and coughing should be done into tissues, which should be carefully disposed of.

  • When possible, people with symptoms should sleep in a separate room.

  • People who are coughing or sneezing because of a cold should not go to work or school where they might infect others.

  • Cleaning shared objects and surfaces with a disinfectant can also help reduce the spread of common cold viruses.

Despite their popularity, echinacea and high-dose vitamin C (up to 2,000 milligrams per day) do not prevent colds, nor does eating citrus fruits.

Treatment of Common Cold

  • Rest at home to prevent spread to others

  • Plenty of fluids and inhalation of steam

  • If needed, over-the-counter drugs to relieve symptoms

People with a cold should stay warm and comfortable and should rest. They should try to avoid spreading the infection to others by staying at home. Drinking fluids and inhaling steam or mist from a vaporizer have long been suggested as a way to help to keep secretions loose and easier to expel, but they probably help only a little bit.

Currently available antiviral drugs are not effective against colds. Antibiotics do not help people with colds, even when the nose or cough produces thick or colored mucus.

Echinacea, zinc preparations, and vitamin C have been suggested as treatment. Some small studies have shown them to be effective. Others have shown them to be ineffective. But no well-designed, large clinical studies have confirmed their effectiveness. Even when studies did show a benefit, the benefit was small. For example, when zinc shortened the duration of cold symptoms, it was by less than 1 day. Thus, most experts do not recommend these supplements as treatment.

Several popular nonprescription (over-the-counter) remedies help relieve cold symptoms. Because they do not cure the infection, which usually resolves after a week regardless of treatments tried, doctors feel that their use is optional, depending on how bad the person feels. Several different types of drugs are used:

  • Decongestants, which help open clogged nasal passages

  • Antihistamines, which may help dry a runny nose

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or acetaminophen, which can relieve aches and pains and reduce fever

  • Cough syrups, which may make coughing easier by thinning secretions and loosening mucus (expectorants) or which may suppress cough (suppressants)

These drugs are most often sold as combinations but can also be obtained individually.

Inhaled decongestants are better than forms taken by mouth for relieving nasal congestion. However, using inhaled forms for more than 3 to 5 days, then stopping, may make congestion worse than it was originally. Ipratropium, a nasal spray available only by prescription, helps dry a runny nose.

Older antihistamines, such as chlorpheniramine, can cause drowsiness. Newer antihistamines, such as loratadine, are less likely to cause drowsiness but are ineffective for treating the common cold.

Decongestants and antihistamines should not be given to children under 4 years old.

NSAIDs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, can relieve aches and pains and reduce fever, as can acetaminophen. Aspirin is generally not recommended for children because in children, it increases the risk of Reye syndrome, which is a rare but life-threatening disorder.

Cough suppressants are not routinely recommended because coughing is a good way to clear secretions and debris from the airways during a viral infection. However, a severe cough that interferes with sleep or causes great discomfort can be treated with a cough suppressant.


Nonprescription Remedies for the Common Cold



Some Common Side Effects


Relieve aches and pains and reduce fever




Stomach irritation

Risk of Reye syndrome in children


Stomach irritation


Stomach irritation


Open nasal passages and help relieve sneezing



Drowsiness, dry mouth, and, in older people, blurred vision, difficulty urinating, constipation, light-headedness when they stand, and confusion

Cough suppressants

May help reduce cough


Confusion and stomach upset


Constipation, drowsiness, difficulty urinating, and stomach upset


Minimal, but at high doses, confusion, nervousness, and irritability

Decongestants, nasal sprays*

Open clogged nasal passages





Rebound congestion (worse congestion when the drug wears off) if the drug is used for more than a few days

Decongestants, oral*

Dries runny nose


Palpitations, high blood pressure, nervousness, and insomnia


Anxiety, dizziness, nervousness, and insomnia


May help loosen mucus


Minimal, but at high doses, headache and stomach upset

*Decongestants and antihistamines (whether alone or combined) should not be given to children under 4 years old.

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