Connective tissue disorders that are present at birth and injuries can make tissues of the cervix weak.
When the cervix is weak, the baby may be delivered too early.
Cervical insufficiency is identified only after a woman becomes pregnant.
To prevent early delivery, doctors may stitch the cervix closed (cerclage).
Pregnancy complications, such as cervical insufficiency, are problems that occur only during pregnancy. They may affect the woman, the fetus, or both and may occur at different times during the pregnancy.
Normally, the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) opens (dilates) only when labor starts, in response to contractions of the uterus. However, in some women, tissues of the cervix are weak. As a result, the cervix may open (dilate) long before the baby is due, and the baby may be delivered too early.
Cervical insufficiency is estimated to affect one of 100 to 2,000 women.
Locating the Cervix
If a woman has cervical insufficiency in one pregnancy, she is likely to have it in future pregnancies.
Causes of Cervical Insufficiency
What causes the cervix to be weak is not well-understood. It may involve a combination of structural abnormalities and factors such as infection.
Conditions that increase the risk of having a weak cervix (risk factors) include
A connective tissue disorder present at birth (congenital), such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes Ehlers-Danlos syndromes are rare hereditary disorders of connective tissue that result in unusually flexible joints, very elastic skin, and fragile tissues. These syndromes are caused by a defect... read more
An injury to the cervix
Birth defects of the uterus Female Genital Defects Birth defects of the genitals can involve the penis, scrotum, or testes (testicles) in boys and the vagina and labia in girls. Sometimes the genitals are ambiguous, that is, not clearly female... read more , including müllerian duct defects (for example, a uterus that is not shaped normally)
Two or more previous miscarriages during the 2nd trimester
The cervix may be injured during a previous delivery. It may also be injured when a large piece of tissue is removed from the cervix for a biopsy (called a cone biopsy Biopsy ) or when cervical cancer is treated.
Most women with cervical insufficiency do not have any of the above conditions.
Symptoms of Cervical Insufficiency
Many women have no symptoms until the baby is delivered early. Other women have symptoms earlier. These symptoms may include pressure in the vagina, vaginal bleeding or spotting, vague pain in the abdomen or lower back, and a vaginal discharge.
Diagnosis of Cervical Insufficiency
Cervical insufficiency is usually not identified until a woman delivers a baby too soon.
Doctors suspect cervical insufficiency when a woman has symptoms or risk factors for a weak cervix, such as previous miscarriages during the 2nd trimester.
Doctors may also suspect cervical insufficiency during a routine examination during pregnancy when they see that the cervix has dilated too soon.
If cervical insufficiency is suspected, ultrasonography using a handheld device inserted inside the vagina (called transvaginal ultrasonography) can be done. Findings during ultrasonography may suggest cervical insufficiency. For example, if ultrasonography shows that a woman has a short cervix, particularly a woman who is at risk of cervical insufficiency, doctors may closely watch for signs of preterm labor Preterm Labor Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered preterm. Babies born prematurely can have serious health problems. The diagnosis of preterm labor is usually obvious. Measures such... read more .
Treatment of Cervical Insufficiency
Stitching around or through the cervix to keep it from opening too soon
Doctors can place stitches around or through the cervix to keep it from opening too soon. Such procedures are called cervical cerclage.
A cerclage may be placed at different times related to a pregnancy, depending on pregnancy history and medical decisions women make with their doctors. For women who have had two or more pregnancy losses during the 2nd trimester that were diagnosed as being due to cervical insufficiency, a doctor may recommend a cerclage be placed before pregnancy or during 1st trimester. Sometimes, a woman has had no previous history of 2nd-trimester pregnancy loss, but during pregnancy, shortening of the cervix is detected on ultrasonography. In such cases, a doctor will do an evaluation and may recommend continuing to monitor with ultrasonography or a cerclage.
Before cervical cerclage, the woman is given a general anesthetic General anesthesia Surgery is the term traditionally used to describe procedures (called surgical procedures) that involve manually cutting or stitching tissue to treat diseases, injuries, or deformities. However... read more or regional anesthetic Local anesthesia and regional anesthesia . Then doctors usually insert instruments through the vagina to place the stitches. Stitches are usually removed before delivery. If a cerclage was placed before pregnancy, the stitches are left in place, and cesarean delivery Cesarean Delivery Cesarean delivery is surgical delivery of a baby by incision through a woman’s abdomen and uterus. In the United States, up to 30% of deliveries are cesarean. Doctors use a cesarean delivery... read more is done.
If preterm labor is suspected after 22 to 23 weeks of pregnancy, doctors may prescribe corticosteroids (to help the fetus's lungs mature) and modified bed rest (modified activity). Modified bed rest means that women should stay off of their feet most of the day.