How many women have adenomyosis is unclear, partly because it is hard to diagnose.
The cause of adenomyosis is unknown. Adenomyosis may be more common among women who have had more than one pregnancy.
Doctors may suspect adenomyosis when they do a pelvic examination and discover that the uterus is enlarged, round, and softer than normal.
Doctors often diagnose adenomyosis based on the results of pelvic ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasonography is often done with a handheld ultrasound device inserted into the vagina (called transvaginal ultrasonography).
However, for a definitive diagnosis of adenomyosis, doctors must examine tissues taken from the uterus. The only way to obtain these tissues is to remove the uterus (hysterectomy).
Using an intrauterine device (IUD) that releases a synthetic female hormone called levonorgestrel can help control the bleeding and painful menstrual periods. Doctors may recommend taking birth control pills (oral contraceptives).
Analgesics may be taken for pain.
If symptoms are severe, a hysterectomy is done. A hysterectomy completely relieves symptoms.