How many women have adenomyosis is unclear, partly because it is hard to diagnose.
Adenomyosis causes symptoms in only some women, usually those aged 35 to 50. Some women with adenomyosis also have endometriosis Endometriosis In endometriosis, patches of endometrial tissue—normally occurring only in the lining of the uterus (endometrium)—appear outside the uterus. Why endometrial tissue appears outside the uterus... read more or fibroids Fibroids A fibroid is a noncancerous tumor composed of muscle and fibrous tissue. It is located in the uterus. Fibroids can cause pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, constipation, repeated miscarriages... read more .
The cause of adenomyosis is unknown. Adenomyosis may be more common among women who have had more than one pregnancy.
Doctors may suspect adenomyosis when they do a pelvic examination and discover that the uterus is enlarged, round, and softer than normal.
Doctors often diagnose adenomyosis based on the results of pelvic ultrasonography Ultrasonography Sometimes doctors recommend screening tests, which are tests that are done to look for disorders in people who have no symptoms. If women have symptoms related to the reproductive system (gynecologic... read more or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasonography is often done with a handheld ultrasound device inserted into the vagina (called transvaginal ultrasonography).
However, for a definitive diagnosis of adenomyosis, doctors must examine tissues taken from the uterus. The only way to obtain these tissues is to remove the uterus (hysterectomy).
Using an intrauterine device Intrauterine Devices (IUDs) Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are small, flexible, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus. An IUD is left in place for 3, 5, or 10 years, depending on the type, or until the... read more (IUD) that releases a synthetic female hormone called levonorgestrel can help control the bleeding and painful menstrual periods. Doctors may recommend taking birth control pills (oral contraceptives).
Analgesics may be taken for pain.
If symptoms are severe, a hysterectomy is done. A hysterectomy completely relieves symptoms.