Balanitis xerotica obliterans
This lesion, another name for lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in men, is an indurated, blanched area near the tip of the glans surrounding and often constricting the meatus. It results from chronic inflammation and may lead to phimosis, paraphimosis Phimosis and Paraphimosis Phimosis is inability to retract the foreskin. Paraphimosis is entrapment of the foreskin in the retracted position; it is a medical emergency. Phimosis is normal in children and typically resolves... read more , or urethral stricture Urethral Stricture Urethral stricture is scarring that obstructs the anterior urethral lumen. Urethral stricture can be Congenital Acquired Anything that damages the urethral epithelium or corpus spongiosum can... read more . Topical drugs, including corticosteroids, tacrolimus, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory drugs, may be used, but their efficacy is limited. Surgery is required in severe cases.
Carcinoma in situ
Carcinoma in situ can include
Erythroplasia of Queyrat
Paget disease of the nipple
Erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen disease of the penis are well-circumscribed areas of reddish, velvety pigmentation in the genital area, usually on the glans or at the corona, primarily in uncircumcised men.
Paget disease of the nipple (not to be confused with Paget disease of bone) is a rare intraepithelial adenocarcinoma that can occur in extramammary locations, including the penis.
Bowenoid papulosis involves smaller, often multiple papules on the shaft of the penis.
These conditions are considered intraepithelial neoplasia or carcinoma in situ and should be biopsied.
Treatment consists of 5% fluorouracil cream, local excision, or laser therapy. Close follow-up is indicated.
Penile lichen planus
This lesion occurs as small papules or macules, sometimes annular, on the glans or shaft and may be mistaken for pemphigoid or erythema multiforme. Pruritus is common.
Penogingival syndrome in men (and vulvovaginal gingival syndrome in women) is a more severe form of erosive lichen planus Lichen Planus Lichen planus is a recurrent, pruritic, inflammatory eruption characterized by small, discrete, polygonal, flat-topped, violaceous papules that may coalesce into rough scaly plaques, often accompanied... read more . It occurs on both oral and genital mucosa. Ulcers may develop and cause pain.
Lichen planus usually resolves spontaneously. If asymptomatic, it may not require treatment. Topical corticosteroids may help relieve symptoms.
Pearly penile papules
These papules are small, harmless angiofibromas that appear on the corona of the penis as dome-shaped or hairlike projections and tend to be skin-colored. They may also appear on the distal shaft. They are common, occurring in up to 10% of men. They are not associated with human papillomavirus, although they may be mistaken for genital warts. Treatment is not required.
Contact dermatitis of the penis
Contact dermatitis Contact Dermatitis Contact dermatitis is inflammation of the skin caused by direct contact with irritants (irritant contact dermatitis) or allergens (allergic contact dermatitis). Symptoms include pruritus and... read more of the penis has become more common with the widespread use of latex condoms. Dermatitis appears as red, pruritic lesions, sometimes with weeping or fissures. Treatment is with topical corticosteroids and use of nonlatex condoms (but not natural condoms, which do not provide adequate protection against HIV). Mild over-the-counter corticosteroids can be tried first, with use of middle- or high-potency prescription preparations as needed.