Overview of Blood Transfusion
A blood transfusion is the transfer of blood or a blood component from one healthy person (a donor) to another sick person (a recipient).
In the United States, about 25 million blood transfusions are given every year. Transfusions are given to increase the blood's ability to carry oxygen, restore the amount of blood in the body (blood volume), and correct clotting problems. Typical transfusion recipients include
People who have been injured
People undergoing surgery
People receiving treatment for cancers (such as leukemia)
In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) strictly regulates the collection, transportation, and storage of blood and its components. These regulations were developed to protect both the donor and the recipient. Additional standards are upheld by many state and local health authorities, as well as by organizations such as the American Red Cross (see Eligibility Requirements) and the AABB (formerly, the American Association of Blood Banks). Because of these regulations, giving blood and receiving blood are very safe. However, transfusions still pose risks for the recipient, such as allergic reactions, fever and chills, excess blood volume, and bacterial and viral infections. Even though the chance of contracting AIDS, hepatitis, or other infections from transfusions is remote, doctors are well aware of these risks and order transfusions only when there is no alternative. Before ordering a transfusion (except in an emergency), doctors explain the risks of transfusion to people and ask them to sign a document affirming that they understand the risks and giving their consent for transfusion (called informed consent). Rarely, some donors may also develop adverse effects following donation, including giddiness, low blood pressure, nausea and tingling/numbness at the site of needle insertion for the blood draw.
People have different blood types. Blood type is determined by whether certain antigens (complex sugar or protein molecules [blood group antigens A and B and Rh factor]) are present on the surface of red blood cells. These antigens can trigger an immune response.
The four main blood types are A, B, AB, and O (distribution in general population)
Also, blood may be Rh-positive (Rh factor is present on the surface of the red blood cells, 85% of people) or Rh-negative (Rh factor is absent, 15% of people).
Normally, if people lack an A and/or a B antigen, they have naturally occurring antibodies against the antigen or antigens that they lack. For example, people with blood type A have naturally occurring anti-B antibody, and people with blood type O (who lack both A and B antigens) have naturally occurring anti-A and anti-B antibodies. In addition to A and B antigens, there are several other blood group antigens also present on red blood cells. However, people do not have naturally occurring antibodies against these antigens. Such antibodies develop only if people are exposed to these antigens by transfusion.
Some blood types are far more common than others. In the United States, the most common blood types in whites are O-positive (37%) and A-positive (33%), followed by B-positive (9%), O-negative (8%), A-negative (7%), AB-positive (3%), B-negative (2%), and AB-negative (1%).