Hand and finger disorders include ganglia Ganglia Ganglia are swellings that occur over joints or on coverings of tendons in the hands and wrists and that contain a jellylike fluid. It is not known why ganglia develop. Ganglia usually do not... read more , deformities Hand and finger deformities Hand and finger disorders include ganglia, deformities, disorders related to nerves or blood vessels, osteoarthritis, trigger finger, Kienböck disease, and infections. Some other disorders that... read more , disorders related to nerves Nerve compression syndromes of the hand Hand and finger disorders include ganglia, deformities, disorders related to nerves or blood vessels, osteoarthritis, trigger finger, Kienböck disease, and infections. Some other disorders that... read more or blood vessels, osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis of the Hand Osteoarthritis of the hand causes swelling, pain, and sometimes formation of cysts on the finger joints (particularly the outermost ones). Osteoarthritis of the hand causes bones over the outermost... read more , trigger finger Trigger Finger Trigger finger is locking of a finger in a bent position caused by inflammation of a tendon in the finger. (See also Overview of Hand Disorders.) The cause of trigger finger is unknown. Trigger... read more , Kienböck disease Kienböck Disease Kienböck disease is the death of bone due to an impaired blood supply ( osteonecrosis) affecting the lunate bone in the hand. (See also Overview of Hand Disorders.) The lunate bone is one of... read more , and infections.
Some other disorders that affect the hands and fingers include fractures Hand Fractures Any bone in the hand can be broken. Hand fractures include Fractures of the wrist bones (carpals) Fractures of the bones of the palm (metacarpals) Fractures of the bones of the thumb and fingers... read more , other injuries, rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis in which joints, usually including those of the hands and feet, are inflamed, resulting in swelling, pain, and often destruction of joints.... read more , tendinitis and tenosynovitis Tendinitis and Tenosynovitis Tendinitis is inflammation of a tendon. Tenosynovitis is tendinitis accompanied by inflammation of the protective covering around the tendon (tendon sheath). The cause is not always known. Tendons... read more , De Quervain syndrome De Quervain Syndrome De Quervain syndrome is swelling and inflammation of the tendons or tendon sheaths that move the thumb outward. (See also Overview of Hand Disorders.) De Quervain syndrome usually occurs after... read more , Raynaud syndrome Raynaud Syndrome Raynaud syndrome, a functional peripheral arterial disease, is a condition in which small arteries (arterioles), usually in the fingers or toes, narrow (constrict) more tightly than normal in... read more , finger clubbing Clubbing Clubbing is enlargement of the tips of the fingers or toes and a change in the angle where the nails emerge. Clubbing occurs when the amount of soft tissue beneath the nail beds increases. It... read more , complex regional pain syndrome Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome is chronic neuropathic pain characterized by persistent burning or aching pain plus certain abnormalities that occur in the same area as the pain. Abnormalities... read more , and certain birth defects Overview of Birth Defects Birth defects, also called congenital anomalies, are physical abnormalities that occur before a baby is born. They are usually obvious within the first year of life. The cause of many birth... read more .
Hand and finger deformities
Hand and finger deformities include swan-neck deformity Swan-Neck Deformity Swan-neck deformity is a bending in (flexion) of the base of the finger, a straightening out (extension) of the middle joint, and a bending in (flexion) of the outermost joint. (See also Overview... read more , boutonnière deformity Boutonnière Deformity Boutonnière deformity is a deformity in which the middle finger joint is bent in a fixed position inward (toward the palm) and the outermost finger joint is bent excessively outward (away from... read more , and Dupuytren contracture Dupuytren Contracture Dupuytren contracture is a progressive tightening of the bands of fibrous tissue (called fascia) inside the palms, causing a curling in of the fingers that eventually can result in a clawlike... read more . These deformities may be caused by an injury or may result from another disorder (for example, rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis in which joints, usually including those of the hands and feet, are inflamed, resulting in swelling, pain, and often destruction of joints.... read more ).
Typically, doctors base the diagnosis of hand and finger deformities on an examination.
Deformities can sometimes be treated by splinting or exercises, but if the deformity has lasted for weeks or months, these treatments may be ineffective because scarring has developed. When splinting or exercises are not helpful, surgery may be needed.
Hand and finger infections
Human and animal bites can cause an infection of the hands ( see Hand Infections Caused By Bites Hand Infections Caused By Bites The most common human bite–related infection of the hand is injury to the knuckles of a person who punches another person in the mouth (called a clenched fist injury or fight bite). Animal bites... read more ). Some other infections are felon Felon A felon is an infection of the soft tissue (pulp) of the fingertip, usually caused by bacteria. A felon can lead to a pocket of pus (abscess) inside the fingertip, which creates pressure on... read more , herpetic whitlow Herpetic Whitlow Herpetic whitlow is a viral infection of the fingertip. (See also Overview of Hand Disorders.) Herpes simplex virus (similar to the one that causes fever blisters) may cause an intense, painful... read more , hand abscess Hand Abscess A hand abscess is an accumulation of pus affecting the hand, usually caused by a bacterial infection. (See also Overview of Hand Disorders.) Abscesses in the hands are fairly common and usually... read more , infection of the tendon sheath Infection of the Tendon Sheath in the Fingers A bacterial infection can develop in the tendon sheath that surrounds the tendons in the palm and inside of the fingers. (See also Overview of Hand Disorders.) Pockets of pus (abscesses) may... read more , and paronychia Acute Paronychia Acute paronychia is a bacterial infection of the nail fold. In acute paronychia, bacteria (usually Staphylococcus aureus or streptococci) enter through a break in the skin resulting from... read more (a bacterial infection of the skin around the fingernail) . Hand and finger infections can cause constant, intense, throbbing pain.
Doctors base the diagnosis of hand and finger infections on an examination and sometimes x-rays or other imaging studies.
Most hand infections are treated with antibiotics taken by mouth or by vein and sometimes surgery.
Nerve compression syndromes of the hand
Carpal tunnel syndrome Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome is a painful compression (pinching) of the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel in the wrist. The cause of most cases of carpal tunnel syndrome is unknown... read more , cubital tunnel syndrome Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Cubital tunnel syndrome is a disorder caused by compression (pinching) of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. Repetitive use of the elbow can cause cubital tunnel syndrome. Symptoms include numbness... read more , and radial tunnel syndrome Radial Tunnel Syndrome Radial tunnel syndrome is a disorder resulting from compression (pinching) of a branch of the radial nerve in the forearm or back of the arm or at the elbow. (See also Overview of Hand Disorders... read more are nerve compression syndromes. In these disorders, something, usually bone or connective tissue, presses on a nerve, causing abnormalities of sensation, movement, or both. Symptoms of nerve compression syndromes include tingling, pain, loss of sensation, weakness, or a combination.
The diagnosis of nerve compression syndromes is suggested by the examination and can often be confirmed by electromyography and nerve conduction studies Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies Diagnostic procedures may be needed to confirm a diagnosis suggested by the medical history and neurologic examination. Imaging tests commonly used to diagnose nervous system (neurologic) disorders... read more .
In these syndromes, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the nerve if symptoms are severe despite other treatments or if there is persistent loss of sensation or weakness.